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Future Applications of Voice Over IP – Challenges & Obstacles. Joe Rinde 4 September, 1997. Technology Implications. The Future of Voice Over IP Is a New Way to Communicate The Future Is Not in Cheaper Voice A Way to Communicate As Different From Telephone As Telephone Was From Telegraph.
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Future Applications of Voice Over IP – Challenges & Obstacles Joe Rinde 4 September, 1997
Technology Implications • The Future of Voice Over IP Is a New Way to Communicate • The Future Is Not in Cheaper Voice • A Way to Communicate As Different From Telephone • As Telephone Was From Telegraph
All Or Nothing? • Future Communications Will Use • Packet Switching • And Circuit Switching • Both Will Be Used to Deliver Integrated Services • Users Will Benefit by Receiving the services they want Paying the Lowest Possible Price for Services
Single or Multiple Lines? • Should All Services be on a Single Line? • Sometimes • The Provision of Services • Independent of Network • In the Most Cost Effective Manner • In a Given the Situation • Sometimes That Means a Single Line • Sometimes It Means Multiple Lines
Internet PSTN Classic View of Telecom
Internet IP Ethernet PBX POTS PSTN New View of Telecom
Vault • A Marriage of : • Packet Switching • And Circuit Switching • Under the Canopy of Intelligent ServicesTo Allow the Provision of Services Across Whatever Network Is Appropriate at the Time Users Should Not Be Concerned With Networks Users Should Be Free to Focus on Services
Intelligent Services Signaling Signaling User Profiles Circuit Switching Packet Switching Gateways Vault Components
Applications • Command and Control • Fax • Voice • Collaborative Multi-Media
Cost Savings • Confused Comparisons • Price of PSTN vs. Cost of IP • Creates a Warped View of Relative Costs • Tariff Basis • By the Minute vs. By the Month • Regulatory Issues • Access Charges / Accounting Rate • These Discrepancies Will Normalize Over Time Eliminating the Arbitrage Opportunity
Voice Over IP • Phone to Phone Internet Telephony • Not Economic Domestically on a Dial in Basis • Domestic Long Distance Is Already Low Priced • Internet Telephony Needs GatewaysWhich Are a Major Cost of the Service
Voice Over IP • Applicable Internationally Where Prices Are High • Based on the Recent WTO Agreement This Arbitrage Opportunity Will Diminish Over the Next 2 Years • Who Will Use International Voice Over IP? • Bandwidth Is Limited, So Delays Will Exist • Who Will Pay for Additional International Bandwidth • Consumers May Tolerate It, but Business Won’t • A Viable Alternative for Intracorporate Calling
Intracorporate Phone Calling • Uses Existing LAN and WAN Infrastructures • Can Interface to a Existing PBX • Callers Use Standard Hand Sets • Selection of PSTN or IP Made Dynamically by the PBX • Use of IP Is Transparent to the User • Hopefully
Intracorporate PC Calling • PCs on LANs Are Always On-Line • A Single Phone Call Adds »10 Kbps Half Duplex • Only 0.3% Of a T1 • Very Low Incremental Cost • Add Calls to and From the PSTN via the PBX • Cable Modems or xDSL Technology May Bring This to the Home
Fax • Store and Forward Fax via the Internet • Real Time Fax via the Internet • Store and Forward Can Be Used As a Mail Box • Part of a Universal Mail Box • Can Be Used As Follow Me Service
Collaborative Multi-Media • Communication As Different From Telephone • As Telephone Was From Telegraph
Applications • Road Warrior • Hotel Room With a Single Line • Voice Activated Web Page • Sales • Tech Support • Multi-Media Conferencing
Marriage of Media Video Phone Is Only the Start • Shared White Board Is Fundamental • Shared Applications -- • Internet Conference • NetMeeting • Multi-Way Conferences • More Effective Meetings • More Frequent Meetings • More Usage of Communications
Nowhere Is It Written That Voice Must Pass Over the Internet How To Transport Voice • There Is No Single Answer • Circuit and Packet Switching Will Both Be Used • There Is No Reason Why a PC Can’t Coordinate a PSTN Call With Shared Applications Over the Internet A PBX Can Decide How Phone Calls Will Be Routed A PC Can Do the Same!
Usage • Ease of Use Will Lead to More Use • Impromptu Meetings • No Advance Setup Required • Drop in on a Colleague Across the Globe • Knock on His Virtual Door for a Chat • Call in a Colleague at a Third Location to Consult • Today We Are Limited to a Building • To a Single Floor • We Will Have More Informal Meetings
Impact Of Voice Over IP • Not Just a Shift of Usage • Circuit Switching Use Will Continue • Packet Switching is an Additional Capability • IP & Conventional Telephony Will Live In Harmony For Years To Come Absolute Usage Will Increase
The Future of Voice Over IP • This Is Not an Cheaper Voice Issue • Voice Over IP Will Be Sold on Feature Function • Facilitation of Collaborative Computing • Part of the PC Centric Workplace • Foster New, Not Replacement, Communication • Creates New Economic Opportunities For Those Who Exploit Its Potential
ROCKS Rocks On the Road • DELAY • Need for Absolute Reliability • System Integration & Ease of Use • Costs
DELAY • Who Will Tolerate It • One on One Calls • Conference Calls • Delay Sources — PCs, Gateways, Congestion • Digitizing Time • Less Time / More Packets • Not Practical in the Public Internet • Congestion Issues • Edges of the Public Internet • Well Managed Intranets
Reliability • Voice Is Mission Criticaland How! • It Is Bad Enough When You Computer Network Is Down • If Your Voice Network Goes Down You Might As Well Go Home • Who Will Take the Risk? • How to Minimize Transition Risk
Ease of Use • Voice Over IP Must Work From a Hand Set • Dialing Must Be Like It Is Today • The Same Is True of Fax • Remember the Impact of 1+ Dialing • Even Use Of 10XXX Is a Market Inhibitor • Multi-media MUST Be Easy to Use • Delay Is a Factor Here Too Can’t Change How People Work At Least Not Quickly
Costs • Is It Really Cheaper to Do Voice Over IP? • Yes • But Not by Much • Fundamental Switching Costs Are Very Close • Bandwidth Use Is Lower • But the Cost of Gateways Eats up Most of That • For an Incumbent Carrier There Is No Push for Immediate Conversion • For a New Carrier It May Be the Way to Go • But Watch Out for the Quality of Service
Generic Internet Considerations • QoS — RSVP • There is no NNI to signal requests bet. Networks • Billing Issue / Settlement • Can RSVP be supported in the public Internet? • Requires monitoring flows • 4,000 flows per second
To Client Client Server To Server More Generic Considerations • Settlements — Speed & Distance • Cost Recovery International Traffic
More Generic Considerations • Security & Privacy • Crypto Export • Addressing Through Gateways • White Pages