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Effects of Gender on Parental Attitudes Toward Punishment of Children. By Lindsay Ludwig and Amanda Nocton Hanover College. Parental gender and spanking . Parents punish child of same sex more: Rothbart and Maccoby (1966) Herzberger and Tennen (1985)

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effects of gender on parental attitudes toward punishment of children

Effects of Gender on Parental Attitudes Toward Punishment of Children

By Lindsay Ludwig and Amanda Nocton

Hanover College

parental gender and spanking
Parental gender and spanking
  • Parents punish child of same sex more:
    • Rothbart and Maccoby (1966)
    • Herzberger and Tennen (1985)
  • Parents show no difference in discipline:
    • Holden, Miller, and Harris (1999)
    • Lytton and Romney (1991)
child gender and punishment
Child gender and punishment
  • Boys punished more often:
    • Maccoby and Jacklin (1974)
    • Bezirganian and Cohen (1992)
research question
Research question
  • Is there a difference in type of punishment enforced by parents based on both parental gender and child gender?
  • How does the type of infraction influence the punishment received?
    • Flynn (1998)
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • There will be a gender difference.
    • Explore effects of gender of parents across types of punishment.
    • Male children will receive harsher punishments than their female counterparts.
  • When a child’s infractions cause harm to themselves or others they will receive more punishment than if their infractions reflect general disrespect.
variables
Variables
  • Two independent variables of gender (2 levels each—male and female):
    • Gender of participant
    • Gender of child (manipulated)
  • Type of infraction (IV)
  • Type of punishment (DV)
method
Method
  • Online study
    • Informed Consent
    • Demographics
    • Instructions/scenario
    • List of infractions and punishments
    • Debriefing form
instructions that participants received
Instructions that participants received

Suppose that you have an 8-year-old son/daughter who commits each of the following infractions after having been warned previously not to. Choose the likelihood that you would use each of the punishments from 0-3 (o not at all, 1 maybe, 2 probably, 3 definitely). Please be sure to assign a number for each punishment under every infraction.

participants
Participants
  • Recruitment
  • Criteria for deletion
  • Total N=224
    • Male N=61
    • Female N=163
  • Parent?
    • Yes N=103
    • No N=121
nature of analysis
Nature of Analysis
  • 2 (gender of participant) x 2 (gender of child) x 3 (type of punishment) x 9 (type of infraction) mixed ANOVA
  • Between-subjects
  • Within-subjects
discussion
Discussion
  • Exploration of parent gender.
    • Evidence is mixed, fathers more likely to spank, mothers more likely to verbally reprimand
    • Maintaining gender roles
    • Negative implications
  • Hypothesis 2 looked at child gender.
    • Was mostly supported, two infractions were significant
    • Weaker than expected
  • Hypothesis 3 dealt with infraction
    • Was not supported
discussion cont
Discussion cont.
  • Limitations:
    • Child gender
    • Self-report
  • Future Research:
    • Bullying and teasing
    • Lying