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la Drang Valley. U.S. saw it as proof that attrition works The VC claimed that they had forced the U.S. into combat to inflict casualties and learn about U.S. tactics. VC did not consider this a defeat . la Drang Valley. la Drang Valley. U.S. Infantry disembarks.

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slide1

la Drang Valley

  • U.S. saw it as proof that attrition works
  • The VC claimed that they had forced the U.S. into combat to inflict casualties and learn about U.S. tactics.
  • VC did not consider this a defeat.
slide3

la Drang Valley

U.S. Infantry disembarks

slide6

Operation Phoenix

  • U.S. assassination program
  • We tried to eliminate VC leaders
  • Thousands died in these related attacks.
slide7

Ho Chi Minh Trail

  • North Vietnamese supply line from DRVN and ending at various points near the South Vietnamese border
  • A honeycomb of routes through jungle and grassland areas that totaled 12,000 miles of trail
  • Although Laos was supposedly neutral (per the Geneva agreement of 1954), 100’s of miles of the trail passed through that country
slide10

Ho Chi Minh Trail

  • Before 1964, the trail was used by bicycles that were specially modified to carry pallets of rifles and ammunition weighing 400 pounds.
  • In 1964 the trail was upgraded with bridges, way stations, underground barracks, storage facilities, workshops, and fuel depots
  • In 1965 80,000 laborers were building 2 miles of new road each day
slide12

Ho Chi Minh Trail

  • 2,294 trucks passed through from Jan to May of 1965
  • 12,000 DRVN soldiers infiltrated into the South in 1965
  • 24,000 DRVN soldiers in 1966
  • It became of primary importance to stop this infiltration along the trail
  • April 1965, the U.S. began air strikes against the trail called “Steel Tiger”
slide14

Ho Chi Minh Trail

  • This led to the secret expansion of the war into Laos in 1965
  • In March of 1970 President Nixon finally admitted U.S. military operations in Laos, claiming that the North Vietnamese had violated the Geneva Accord “before the ink was dry” and that over ½ million North Vietnamese troops had entered the South though Laos
the cu chi tunnel
The Cu Chi Tunnel
  • Of major importance during the Vietnam War
  • About 250 kilometers long
slide16

NAPALM

  • Destructive gelled gasoline chemical that burns uncontrollably
  • Sticks to bodies and sears off flesh
  • Burns at 800 to 1200 degrees Celsius
slide21

Agent Orange

  • A deforesting agent that killed jungle life, exposing VC hiding places
  • Contained dioxin – extremely toxic
  • Reported to cause death, debilitating diseases, and genetic defects to those exposed
slide25

Agent Orange

C 123 “Supplier” of Agent Orange

slide26

Agent Orange

Service Patch awarded for flying Agent Orange “Ranch Hand” missions

slide34

The American Public

is Misled

  • May 1967 – CIA estimates that 430,000 Viet Cong had infiltrated the South
  • Dec 1967 – 45% of American public said our involvement in Vietnam was a mistake
slide35

The American Public

is Misled

  • Nov 1967 – Vice President Humphrey says on the “Today Show” – “We are on the offensive. Territory is being gained. We are making steady progress.”
slide36

The American Public

is Misled

  • Nov 21, 1967 – General Westmoreland says that DRVN was “unable to mount a major offensive . . . I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing.”
  • Westmoreland says in interview with Time Magazine, “I hope they try something, because we are looking forward for a fight.”
slide37

Tet Offensive

  • TếtNguyênDán – January 31 - the lunar new year– most important Vietnamese holiday
  • Both North and South Vietnam had announced on national radio that there would be a three-day cease-fire during the Tet celebration
slide38

Tet Offensive

  • Jan 31, 1968 - The VC launched a series of unexpected highly coordinated attacks all across South Vietnam.
  • 80,000 VC troops struck more than 100 towns and cities – including Saigon
  • U.S. embassy in Saigon was invaded
  • The largest military operation by either side in the war up until then
slide40

Tet Offensive

Saigon burns

slide41

Tet Offensive

  • The North Vietnamese had hoped to spark a nationwide Communist rebellion among the people of South Vietnam.
  • They were unsuccessful.
  • But it showed the American public that our government had not been truthful about the situation in Vietnam.
slide42

Tet Offensive

  • Attacks continued until September 1968.
  • Ended U.S. hopes of winning the war
  • After Tet, we were looking for a way out.
slide43

Credibility Gap

  • The Media shapes how the public views events- through graphic images
  • The public stops trusting the gov’t when they keep saying we are winning the war but the images show the opp.
slide44

My Lai Massacre

  • March 16, 1968
  • “Search and destroy” mission
  • A small village in South Vietnam where 250 VC were rumored to be hiding
  • When we arrived, we found only women and children
slide45

My Lai Massacre

  • Lt. William Calley ordered all of the inhabitants rounded up and executed
  • Only one U.S. chopper crew flew in and stopped the slaughter.
  • 407 villagers were killed
  • American public was shocked and outraged
slide50

Lt. William Calley

  • Lt. William Calley was tried for murder
  • Claimed he was only following orders to kill everyone in the village
  • Dishonorably discharged and received a life term in prison
  • His sentence was later reduced by President Nixon
  • Released on parole in November 1975
slide53

My Lai Massacre

My Lai Memorial at the site of the massacre

slide54

Operation Menu

  • The U.S. launched secret attacks on Cambodia starting in 1969, looking for rumored VC headquarters.
  • By 1975, the VC continued to use Cambodian supply lines
  • Protests erupted across the U.S. when the public found out about these bombings.
slide56

Operation

Dewey Canyon

  • February 1971
  • RVN forces were to attack the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos to cut off VC supply lines.
  • Would prove that Vietnamization was working
slide57

Operation

Dewey Canyon

  • But as the RVN forces prepared, the VC attacked.
  • Only U.S. B-52 bombers saved the day.
  • It was a disaster that proved that the RVN existed only through massive U.S. support.
slide59

The Anti-War Movement

  • Sit-ins
  • Marches
  • Burning of draft cards
  • Blocking troops trains
  • Self-immolation
  • Teach-ins
slide60

SNCC

  • Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
  • Helped organize many of the war protests on college campuses
slide61

Sit-ins

Students would pick public businesses or college campuses and simply sit there in protest of the war. Made national news as they were dragged out by police.

slide62

Sit-ins

University of Berkeley 1965

slide63

Sit-ins

University of Berkeley 1965

slide64

Teach-ins

  • A series of nationwide debates and lectures about U.S. presence in Vietnam
  • The goal was to educate the public and increase pressure on the government to change its Vietnam policy.
slide65

Counterculture

  • American youth movement that blamed “the establishment” for the war
  • The establishment – old white men
slide66

Counterculture

Beliefs included:

  • questioning authority
  • seeking personal pleasure
  • alternative lifestyles
  • different clothing styles
  • rock music
  • drugs
slide67

Hippies

  • A group that was part of the counterculture
  • Valued youth, individuality, spontaneity, “living for today”
  • Promoted non-materialism, peace, love of nature, and sexual freedom
slide71

Woodstock

  • August 1969
  • 3 day music festival at Max Yazgur’s farm in upstate New York
  • Organizers expected 10,000 – 20,000
  • 400,000 counterculture youth showed up
  • Concert organizers abandoned the plan to set up fences and made the concert free
slide76

Woodstock

Jimi Hendrix

slide77

Yippies

  • Youth International Party
  • “Anarchist hippies” – Planned several fictional events to alarm the public
  • Planned to go the Democratic Convention in 1968 and protest by nominating a pig named “Pigasus” for president and then eating him
  • Invaded Disneyland in August of 1970, where they planned to barbeque Porky Pig
slide80

Candlelight March

  • November 1969
  • Thousands marched on Washington D.C. to protest the war
  • At night they lit candles and marched silently in honor of the dead
slide81

Candlelight March

  • Even government officials’ families participated, such as Vice Pres. Agnew’s daughter.
  • Showed that mainstream Americans were opposed to the war, not just Hippies
slide83

Kent State

  • An Ohio working-class commuter university
  • May 2, 1970 - Students gathered on the grounds to protest the war
  • A fire broke out in the ROTC building
  • The Ohio National Guard was called in
slide84

Kent State

  • On May 4, the National Guard threw tear gas into the crowd of students and ordered them to disperse.
  • Students responded by throwing rocks at the armed guards.
  • The guards fired into the crowd of students
  • 4 killed; 13 wounded – some not even participants in the protest
slide86
Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,We're finally on our own.This summer I hear the drumming,Four dead in Ohio.Gotta get down to itSoldiers are gunning us downShould have been gone long ago.What if you knew herAnd found her dead on the groundHow can you run when you know?

“Ohio” by Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young

slide89

Politics

Personalities

and the

War's End

slide90

HAWKS

Those who favored the war

slide91

DOVES

Those who favored peace

slide92

1968 Election

  • LBJ announced that he would not run for reelection, mainly because of the war in Vietnam.
  • The election was highly turbulent as Americans protested and debated the war.
slide93

Robert F. Kennedy

  • JFK’s younger brother
  • U.S. Attorney General under JFK
  • Entered Presidential race when LBJ announced he would not run again
  • Supported civil rights and the end of the war in Vietnam
slide96

George Wallace

  • Democrat - Governor of Alabama (16 years total)
  • Opposed integration – “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever”
  • Physically stood in the doorway to block entry of two black students to the University of Alabama in June 1963
slide97

George Wallace

  • 1968 - Ran as an American Independent Party candidate in the Presidential election
  • Took away enough votes from the Democrats to allow Nixon to win the election.
  • Ran for President again in 1972 and was shot and paralyzed by a attempted assassin
slide99

Richard M. Nixon

  • Eisenhower’s Vice President
  • Republican
  • Ran against JFK in 1960 and lost an extremely close election
slide100

Richard M. Nixon

  • Won Presidency in 1968 by promising a “secret plan” to win the war in Vietnam
  • Secretly widened the war in Vietnam into Cambodia and Laos
slide101

26th Amendment

  • Passed in 1971
  • Lowered the voting age to 18
  • People believed that if a young person is old enough to die for his nation at age 18, then he is old enough to vote.
slide102

Vietnamization

  • Nixon’s term
  • U.S. forces would be used to train RVN forces
  • Eventually, the U.S. would scale back our troop levels until the RVN could function self-sufficiently
  • By 1972, U.S. troops in Vietnam had been reduced to 24,000
slide103

Dr. Henry Kissinger

  • Secretary of State under Nixon
  • Helped ease tensions between the U.S., China and the USSR
  • Helped negotiate the peace settlement in Vietnam
slide104

Paris Peace Talks

  • Began May 1968
  • Made little progress
  • Stalled over various important issues
    • Permanent international boundary between North and South Vietnam
    • Withdrawal of all American troops
    • Continued American aid to the South
    • Return of all American prisoners of war
    • Continuation of President Thieu in the South
slide105

Peace Talks

and Politics

  • Paris Peace Talks had stalled and the 1972 election was approaching.
  • Jan. 1972, Nixon announced that the North Vietnamese had refused to accept our settlement offer.
  • Just days before the election, Kissinger announced that “Peace is at hand,” even though the settlement was not final.
  • Nixon was re-elected in Nov 1972.
slide106

Operation Linebacker II

  • Dec. 1972 - “The Christmas Bombings”
  • The last American battle of the war
  • Nixon’s goal was to force the North Vietnamese back to the Paris peace talks
  • Originally planned as a 3 day attack (Dec. 18 -20) on Hanoi and Haiphong
  • Operation was planned by SAC (Strategic Air Command) Headquarters in Omaha
slide107

Operation Linebacker II

  • They attacked at night in waves timed just a few minutes apart
  • About100 B 52’s approached Hanoi in groups of 3, traveling in straight lines of exactly the same altitude, making it easy for SAM’s (Surface to Air Missiles) to track and shoot them down
  • In the first 3 nights, 8 American B52’s were shot down
slide108

Operation Linebacker II

  • On Dec. 21st Nixon ordered the attacks be extended past the original 3 days
  • SAC reviewed and revised its tactics to reduce further losses of aircraft
  • Bombings continued everyday (except Christmas) until Dec. 29th
  • North Vietnam finally agreed to return to the Paris negotiations
slide109

Operation Linebacker II

  • 729 night time B52 sorties and 650 daytime smaller fighter craft flown
  • Over 40,000 tons of bombs were dropped on the Hanoi/Haiphong area.
  • Over 2000 killed
  • 1600 civilians killed
  • 15 B52s lost / 12 smaller aircraft lost
  • 33 crew members killed/ 33 became POWs
  • World leaders denounced the bombings.
  • Nixon’s approval rating in U.S. fell to 39%.
slide110

Peace Talks Resume

  • The North Vietnamese insisted that Americans are told the bombings were not the reason they returned to the peace talks.
  • Jan. 1973 – final agreement signed:
    • U.S. would withdraw all troops within 60 days
    • All prisoners of war would be released
    • Ended military activities in Cambodia and Laos
    • 17th parallel would remain a “temporary” dividing line
  • Nixon believed he had achieved “peace with honor.”
slide111

Cost of the War

  • 58,000 dead
  • 300,000 wounded
  • 2,500 POW’s and MIA’s
  • $150 billion spent

to America

slide112

POW's

  • Prisoners of war
  • Hundreds of U.S. soldiers had been captured and detained by VC forces.
  • Some had been executed and some were tortured before being returned at the end of the war.
slide113

MIA's

  • “Missing in action”
  • Hundreds of U.S. soldiers remained unaccounted for at the end of the war.
  • We weren’t sure if they had been killed, captured, had deserted, or something else.
slide115

Gerald R. Ford

  • 1974 – 1977
  • Republican
  • Became Vice President when Agnew resigned
  • Became President when Nixon resigned in Aug. 1974
  • Brought Vietnam War to a final conclusion
slide116

The Struggle Continues

  • North Vietnam continued to invade the South after American troops withdrew
  • In 1972, Nixon had secretly promised President Thieu of South Vietnam that America would begin bombing the North again if they violated the Paris peace agreement.
  • In 1974, Ford asked Congress for aid, but they refused to send any more money or troops to help the South
slide117

Fall of Saigon

  • April 29, 1975 Communist forces surrounded Saigon.
  • The U.S. frantically evacuated our embassy.
  • Helicopters airlifted over 1,000 Americans and 6,000 Vietnamese out of the city to aircraft carriers.
  • April 30, 1975 – Saigon government officially surrendered to the North
  • Vietnam became a single Communist nation
slide119

The Dominoes Fall

  • In 1975, Laos and Cambodia fell to Communism
  • Cambodia was overtaken by the Khmer Rouge, a radical Communist group
  • They killed 1.5 million Cambodians – anyone they believed was tainted by “Western” ways
  • Over 1.5 million Vietnamese, Laotians, and Cambodians fled their countries, many coming to the U.S. as refugees
slide120

War Powers Act

  • 1973 - A law designed to limit a President’s ability to wage war without Congressional approval. Passed over Nixon’s veto
    • Requires a President to notify Congress within 48 hours after deployment of troops, including reasons for and the expected length of the mission.
    • Limits troop involvement to 60 days without Congressional approval.
    • Congress can demand that the President bring the troops home.
slide122

The Pentagon Papers

  • Showed the Gov’t lied to the people about Vietnam
  • Presidents didn’t want to admit the disgrace of the defeat
slide123

Watergate Crisis

  • Nixon’s re-election agents got caught breaking in the Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel.
  • Nixon tried to cover up the scandal claiming executive privilege.
  • Nixon resigned before being impeached.
  • Lowered public confidence in gov’tofficals
slide124

DÉTENTE

  • Nixon’s relaxing tensions with the Soviet Union
  • Stopped the nuclear build-up between the two nations.