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Identifying and Promoting Effective Instruction and Intervention
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  1. Identifying and Promoting Effective Instruction and Intervention North Carolina School Psychology Association Annual Conference Sunset Beach, NC October 1, 2012 Amy R. Smith NASP President 2012 - 2013

  2. These materials were developed from the work of John Hattie • Developed in cooperation with colleagues at the PA Training and Technical Assistance Network • Hattie, J. (2008). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement . New York: Routledge.

  3. Why Worry About Effective Instruction and Intervention • Legal Requirements • Limited resources • Need to accelerate learning for struggling students • Need to make best recommendations possible following evaluations • Allow maximum impact on achievement

  4. What School Psychologists Can Do With This Information • Advocate for effective practice • Break down barriers • Kill “sacred cows” • Provide professional development • Improve services to students

  5. Visible Learning: What it is • Synthesis of more than 800 meta-analyses • Based on over 50,000 studies • Positive message about schools • We need a barometer of what works best • Use that barometer to guide us to what is excellent

  6. Visible Learning: What it is Not • Not about classroom life • Not about what cannot be influenced in schools • Not about qualitative studies • Not about criticism of research

  7. No Lack of Things to Do • Just about everything works • We don’t need more programs • We need to know what programs work better than others • The problem is “not resistance to innovation, but the fragmentation, overload, and incoherence resulting from the uncritical and uncoordinated acceptance of too many different innovations .” (Fullan & Steiglbauer, 1991)

  8. Need an Achievement Continuum • A single continuum that depicts effect from low to high • Could identify all possible influences on achievement

  9. What is Effect Size? • Provides a way to express the magnitude of study outcomes • An effect size d = 1.0 indicates an increase of one standard deviation • One standard deviation is typically associated with advancing students achievement by 2 to 3 years

  10. What is Effect Size? Effect Size = [Mean treatment – Mean control] / SD Effect Size = [Mean end of treatment – Mean beginning treatment] / SD

  11. Distribution of Effect Sizes • The effects follow a normal distribution • Almost everything works • Setting the bar at zero is absurd • Set the bar at d= 0.40: “The Hinge Point” • Innovations are more than teaching • Variance is important

  12. The Argument:Visible Teaching and Visible Learning • Introduction of the major findings • Build an explanatory story, then convince the reader of the story’s value by working through the evidence

  13. Visible Teaching • What teachers do matters • Concept of excellent teaching • Outward Bound • Search and Rescue Squad • Teaching must be visible to the learner and learning visible to the teacher

  14. Visible Learning A model of learning: • Three worlds of achievement • Surface knowledge of the physical world • Thinking strategies and deeper understanding of the subjective world • The ways students construct knowledge and reality now that they have this surface and deep knowing and understanding

  15. Factors that Impact Learning Contributions to achievement addressed in studies: • The student • The home • The school • The curricula • The teacher • The approaches to teaching

  16. Visible Learning The Contributions from the Curricula

  17. Contributions from the Curricula • Reading (9) • Writing • Drama/Arts • Mathematics • Science • Values/Moral Education • Social Skills • Career Education • Integrated Curricula • Perceptual-motor • Tactile Stimulation • Play • Creativity • Outdoor Education • Extra-curricular • Bilingual

  18. Contributions from the Curricula • Visual-perception • Vocabulary • Phonics instruction • Sentence combining • Repeated reading Nine Reading Programs • Comprehension • Whole language • Exposure to reading • Second/Third chance

  19. Contributions from the Curricula Reading • Best way to teach reading contested • Summary of 50 meta-analyses/2,000 studies/5 million students • Average effect .51 • Importance of actively teaching skills/strategies • Planned/deliberate/explicit/active programs • Successful reading requires decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skills and learning specific strategies/processes

  20. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Visual Perception Programs (d=.55) • Visual and auditory perception similar/important predictors of reading (word rec and comprehension) • Variations in tests used to detect visual perception • Bender and ITPA visual subtests better than Frostig

  21. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Vocabulary Programs (d=.67) • Beneficial in developing reading skills and comprehension • Most effective teaching methods • Providing definitional/contextual information • Involving students in deeper processing • Giving students more than one or two exposures to words • Mnemonic keyword method

  22. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Phonics Instruction (d=.60) • Powerful in process of learning to read–- both for decoding and comprehension • National Reading Panel meta-analysis (2000) • Power of phonemic awareness in learning to read: phoneme isolation, identification, categorization, blending, segmenting, deletion • Positive effects for teacher/computer formats used, higher for preschool than older, delivered through tutoring, small group, whole class

  23. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Phonics Instruction (d=.60) (Cont’d) • Other meta-analyses similar conclusions • Causal factor in learning to read • Group training more effective than individual • Combining phonological and letter training more effective • Effects same for students from all SES • Direct instruction most effective method • Direct instruction and word rec strategies improved comprehension • Rapid naming/letter identification highly related to comp.!

  24. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Sentence Combining Programs (d=.15) • Perhaps more effective at elementary than secondary • Effects ambiguous across all levels

  25. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Repeated Reading Programs (d = 0.67) • Effect from timed tests > from untimed tests • Skills of automaticity in word rec. and decoding need to be specifically taught (especially to students with SLD)

  26. Contributions from the curricula Reading: Comprehension Programs (d = 0.58) • Effects on vocabulary (d = 1.77)greater than on comprehension outcomes (d = 0.70) • Measures using word as unit of study (d = 1.28) greater than whole texts (d = 0.82) • Effects similar for poor (d = 0.80) and good readers (d = 0.74) • Higher effects for programs focusing on processing strategies (d = 1.04) than text programs (d = 0.77) and task programs (d = 0.69)

  27. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Comprehension Programs (cont’d) • Visually dependent (d = 0.94) and auditory/language-dependent strategies (d = 1.18) • Strategies explicitly taught to AUGMENT reading comprehension • Sound/symbol blending methods – superior to many other methods • Concept-oriented reading program • Fluency (d = 0.73) • Story comp (d – 0.65)

  28. Contributions from the Curricula Reading: Whole Language (d = 0.06) • Negligible effects on learning to read • May be of value to later reading • Strategies for reading need to be explicitly taught

  29. Contributions from the curricula Reading: Exposure to Reading (d = 0.36) • Who is doing the reading? • Teacher – (d = 0.63 on oral language, d = 0.41 on reading) • Parent – preschool joint book reading experiences • Language growth (d = 0.67) • Emergent literacy (d = 0.58) • Reading achievement (0.55) • Volunteer – little evidence of effectiveness

  30. Contributions from the curricula Reading: Second- and Third-Chance Programs (d = 0.50) • Reading Recovery (d = 0.96) • Highest when supplement not substitute for classroom teaching • Reading comp. (d = 0.67) • Decoding ( d = 0.56) • Oral reading of words (d = 0.69)

  31. Contributions from the curricula Reading • Most Effective programs • Attend to visual and auditory perceptual skills • Combine vocabulary, comprehension, & phonics • With repeated reading opportunities • Least Effective programs • Whole language • Sentence combining • Incidental learning of vocabulary • If NOT successful first time, Reading Recovery most effective

  32. Contributions from the Curricula 1. Vocabulary .67 1. Repeated reading .67 2. Phonics instruction .60 3. Comprehension .58 4. Visual-perception .55 5. Second/Third chance .50 6. Exposure to reading .36 7. Sentence combining .15 8. Whole language .06 Nine Reading Programs

  33. Contributions from the Curricula • Writing Programs (d=.44) • Powerful to explicitly teach strategies for planning, revising, and editing • Summarizing reading material (.82) • Working together to plan, draft, revise, edit (.75) • Setting clear/specific goals (.70) • Using word processing (.55) • Teaching to write complex sentences (.50) • Important for students to set clear/specific goals as to purpose of each piece of writing

  34. Contributions from the Curricula • Mathematics (d=.45) • Enhanced math achievement when teachers/ students provided specific info about how each student was performing • Feedback effects • Teachers give feedback data/recommendations (.71) • Peer-assisted learning (.62) • Concrete feedback to parents (.43) • Teachers emphasize real-world application (-.04) • Effects of feedback and strategy teaching strong with lower ability students

  35. Contributions from the Curricula • Mathematics (cont’d) • Methodology: • Direct instruction (.55) • Problem solving (.52) • Cooperative learning (.34) • Manipulatives, models, multiple representations (.38) • Technology-aided (.07)

  36. Contributions from the curricula • Social Skills Programs (d = 0.40) • Aim is higher levels of • Social appropriateness • Social problem solving skills • Self-control • Social perspective training • Effects are stronger on • Enhancing peer relations (d = 0.80 to d = 0.90) • Social outcomes (d = 0.5 to d = 0.6) • Mostly short-term gains

  37. Contributions from the curricula • Social Skills Programs (d = 0.40) • More effective programs • Behavioral programs • Dialogue between student and teacher on social problem solving • Lasted 40 lessons or more • Coaching • Modeling • Reinforcement

  38. Contributions from the curricula • Concluding Comments • Less emphasis on content & more on the strategies used • Changes to curricula usually relate to inclusion & emphasis on instructional strategies underlying curricula • Highlight learning strategies & skill development in content area • For a student to learn there must be at minimum • Time on task • Exposure to teaching • Collaborative practice (student and teacher) • Opportunities to practice

  39. Visible Learning The Contributions from Teaching Approaches

  40. Teaching Approaches…. • Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Strategies Emphasizing Success Criteria • Implementations that Emphasize Feedback • Implementations that Emphasize Student Perspectives in Learning • Implementations Using Meta-Cognitive and Self-Regulation Learning

  41. Learning Intentions • Learning intentions should be shared with students so they understand what success is and know what success looks like • Learning intentions may need to be adapted to make them appropriate to all students • Concepts or deeper learning need more time than acquisition of knowledge or surface information • Learning intentions can be grouped • Students may learn other things not planned for

  42. Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Goals- • -Critical for enhancing performance • -Serve a variety of functions essential to the teaching process • -Achievement is enhanced to the degree that students and teachers set challenging rather than “Do Your Best” goals • -Difficult goals better than “Do Your Best” goals or no “assigned” goals • -Goals have a self-energizing effect if appropriately challenging for students • -Commitment not necessary for goal attainment, except for Special Ed students

  43. Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Goals: (d=.56) • Relationship between goal difficulty and performance • Achievement is enhanced with “Difficult goals” compared to “do your best goals • Relationship of self-efficacy to goal attainment • Challenging goals for Special Ed students (d=.63 for long term) and (d=.67 for short term)

  44. Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Goals: (d=.56) • Relationship between goal difficulty and performance (d=.67) • Achievement is enhanced with “Difficult goals” compared to “do your best” goals (d=.66) • Relationship of self-efficacy to goal attainment (d=.92) • Challenging goals for Special Ed students (d=.63 for long term) and (d=.67 for short term)

  45. Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Behavioral Objectives and Advance Organizers (d=.41) • Advance Organizers : Aimed to bridge and link old with new information, are presented prior to learning, can assist in helping the learner organize and interpret new upcoming instruction • Behavioral Objectives: Statements of what students ought to be able to do as a consequence of instruction, but tend to be used for surface rather than deeper knowledge

  46. Strategies Emphasizing Learning Intentions • Learning Hierarchies (d=.19) • A form of learning intention to structure learning in some form of hierarchy where it is more effective to first acquire a set of skills that will support later learning • When facilitate learning (d=.19) • Shorten learning time (d=.09) • Promoting learning at the elementary level (d=.44) • Promoting learning at the high school level (d=.07)

  47. Strategies Emphasizing Success Criteria • Mastery Learning (d=.58) • All children can learn when provided with clear explanation of what it means to “master” the material being taught • Requires feedback loops based on well-defined appropriately sequenced outcomes • Effect sizes for mastery learning: • Elementary school (d=.94) • High School (d=.72) • College (d=.65) • Lower ability students (.96)

  48. Strategies Emphasizing Success Criteria • Worked Examples (d=.57) • Consist of a problem statement and appropriate steps to the solution • Reduces cognitive load for student, can see the processes • Includes 3 parts- exposure to the example, training phase, and assessing the learning

  49. Implementations that Emphasize Feedback • Feedback is among the most powerful influences on achievement • Most powerful when it is from student to teacher • Feedback to teachers helps to make learning visible • Feedback is a consequence of performance