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FIA Crown Classification. Why Crowns?. To assess individuals, stands or watersheds To indicate vigor and growth potential To help measure net primary production To determine basic structural architecture of forests To assess affects on understory flora and fauna. Why Crowns?.

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slide2

Why Crowns?

  • To assess individuals, stands or watersheds
  • To indicate vigor and growth potential
  • To help measure net primary production
  • To determine basic structural architecture of forests
  • To assess affects on understory flora and fauna
slide3

Why Crowns?

  • Health is reflected in crowns
    • Specialists look for
      • Damage from insects or diseases to foliage, branches, or stem
      • Dieback
      • Cankers, wounds
  • Survival and growth
slide4

1)

2)

3)

Use Of Crown Data

slide5

FIA Crown Classification

  • Consistency, repeatability
    • Among field people
    • Among crews
    • Among states, regions
  • MQO’s
  • Certification
slide6

Size Classes of Trees

  • Seedlings
    • >1 inch DBH and 6 inches (conifer) or 1 foot (hardwood) tall
    • No P3 variables
  • Saplings
    • 1 inch to 4.9 inches DBH
    • Several variables
  • Trees
    • 5.0 inches + DBH
    • Several variables
slide7

FIA Plot Configuration

Subplot-trees

Microplot-saplings

slide8

Definitions

  • Live branch

Woody lateral growth supporting foliage and larger than 1 inch at the base just above the swelling where it joins the main (crown) stem.

slide9

Definitions

  • Twig

Woody lateral growth with secondary branching and less than 1 inch in diameter at the point of attachment to a branch or crown stem.

slide10

Definitions

  • Sprig

Woody or non-woody lateral growth without secondary branching and less than 1 inch…

slide11

Definitions

  • Snag branch

Dead upper crown branches without fine twigs.

slide12

Definitions

  • Epicormic branches

Woody or non-woody lateral growths, usually on the bole or crown stem and initiated by sudden exposure or loss of crown stem.

slide13

Definitions, saplings

  • Normal foliage

Individual leaves have <50% of the surface area affected by a damage agent.

slide14

Definitions, saplings

  • Abnormal foliage
    • Individual leaves have >50% of the surface area affected by a damage agent.
    • Note, for saplings, foliage missing from dieback areas is considered abnormal--more later.
slide15

Overstory Canopy Zone

  • The area delineated by the average live crown length used to determine uncompacted live crown ratio for overstory trees.
  • The bottom of the zone is the average height of the live crown bases.
  • The top of the zone is the average height for the live crown tops.
slide17

Crown Measurements Require:

  • A calibrated eye
  • 2 Certified crown raters working as a crew
  • A positive attitude
  • Good weather and daylight
slide18

½ to 1 tree length away

Grade level or upslope

90o

Viewing the Crown

slide19

Viewing the Crown

DON’T stand under the tree to make your ratings.

DON’T stand at 180o from your partner.

slide22

Crown Variables

  • Saplings
    • Uncompacted live crown ratio
    • Crown light exposure
    • Crown position
    • Vigor class
slide23

Codes

  • Crown Light Exposure
    • Codes: 0 to 5
  • Crown Position
    • Codes: 1 – 4
  • Sapling Vigor
    • Codes: 1 - 3
slide24

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Saplings

What is UNCOMPACTED LIVE CROWN RATIO?

  • The percentage of ACTUAL live tree length supporting live foliage that is effectively contributing to tree growth and maintenance.
slide25

X

X

Y

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio

X/Y(100)

slide27

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Saplings

  • Determine the live top of the tree (dieback & dead branches excluded)
  • Determine the base of the live crown (include the foliage on the lowest foliated “twig”; ignore any “sprigs”)
  • Determine the ACTUAL LENGTH of the tree
  • Determine the ratio of the live crown height to the actual live tree length
  • Agree on the best answer with your partner or average and record
slide29

Sapling Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio

X

X/Y(100)

Y

Remember to use ACTUAL LENGTH when determining

uncompacted live crown ratio.

slide30

Sapling Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio

35%

50%

75%

Include leafed twigs

Exclude sprigs

slide31

Sapling Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio

65%

15%

15%

Include dieback in actual length

Include leafed twigs

Exclude sprigs

slide32

Sapling Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio

All epicormic sprigs; crown gone due to damage/dieback

ULCR = 00

slide33

Crown Light Exposure

  • The number of sides (the top is a side, too) of a tree crown that would receive sunlight if the sun were directly overhead.
slide35

Crown Light Exposure

  • Divide the sapling/tree vertically into 4 sides
  • Divide the crown in such a way that as many sides as possible receive full light
  • To qualify a side must have an ULCR of 35% or more and the entire side (25% of the crown circumference) must receive full light
  • Count the number of sides that would receive light from directly overhead
  • Add 1 for the top if it receives any light
  • Trees with an ULCR of <35% can only have an exposure of 0 or 1
slide37

Crown Light Exposure

In this case, the code for exposure would be 2

slide38

3

1 2

0

4

5

Crown Light Exposure

slide39

25%

Code as 1

Crown Light Exposure

slide40

Sapling/Tree Crown Position

  • The relative position of each tree in relation to the main overstory canopy
slide41

Sapling/Tree Crown Position

  • 2 Conditions (> 1 acre in size)
    • >50% crown cover
      • 1=Superstory (Never for saplings)
      • 2=Overstory
      • 3=Understory
    • <50% crown cover
      • 4=Open grown (all saplings/trees)
slide42

Overstory Canopy Zone

>50% crown cover

1

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

slide43

<50% crown cover

All coded 4

Overstory Canopy Zone

(Most will be coded 5 for crown light exposure)

slide44

<50% crown cover, > 1 acre in size

Scattered

Clumped

Overstory Canopy Zone

All coded 4

(Most will be coded 5 for crown light exposure)

slide45

Sapling Vigor Class - Factors

  • Uncompacted live crown ratio (as before)
  • Dieback
    • Must occur on the upper 50% and outer portion of the crown to be counted
    • Qualifies as “damaged foliage”, i.e. the foliage that would have been there contributes to the percentage of damaged foliage
  • Damaged foliage
    • 50% damage on each individual leaf
    • Judged as a percentage of all the foliage
    • Normal foliage is the inverse percentage
slide46

Sapling Vigor Class

Assigned to all tally saplings to assess health and vitality

  • Vigor Class 1
    • Must have ULCR of 35% or more
    • Must have less than 5% dieback
    • Must have 80% or more normal foliage (<20% damaged)
  • Vigor Class 2
    • Can have any ULCR
    • Normal foliage from 21-100%
    • May or may not have dieback
  • Vigor Class 3
    • Can have any ULCR
    • Must have 20% or less normal foliage
slide47

Sapling Vigor Class 1

50%

35%

ULCR 35% or more,

< 5% dieback,

>80% normal foliage

slide48

Sapling Vigor Class 3

15%

Any ULCR,

Any dieback,

<20% normal foliage

slide49

Sapling Vigor Class 2

15%

65%

Any ULCR,

<80% dieback,

21-100% normal foliage

slide55

Saplings

ULCR: 80%

Vigor Class: 1

slide56

Saplings

ULCR: 75%

Vigor Class: 1

slide57

Saplings

ULCR: 80%

Vigor Class: 1

slide58

Saplings

ULCR: 40%

Vigor Class: 1

slide59

Saplings

ULCR: 70%

Vigor Class: 2

slide60

Saplings

ULCR: 60%

Vigor Class: 3

slide61

Saplings

ULCR: 75%

Vigor Class: 1

slide63

Crown Variables

  • Trees
    • Uncompacted live crown ratio
    • Crown light exposure
    • Crown position
    • Crown density
    • Crown dieback
    • Foliage transparency
slide64

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

  • The percentage of actual live tree length supporting live foliage that is effectively contributing to tree growth and maintenance.
slide65

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

  • Determine the live top of the tree (dieback & dead branches excluded)
  • Determine the base of the live crown (Go to the lowest foliage; include all branches that are part of the “obvious” live crown such that “most” of the crown is included; apply the 5 foot/1 inch rule as necessary)
  • Determine the ACTUAL LENGTH of the tree
  • Determine the ratio of the uncompacted live crown to the actual length of the tree
  • Agree on best answer with your partner or average and record
slide67

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

Obvious live crown; include most of the foliage and branches; go to the lowest foliage.

slide68

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

5 foot, 1 inch Rule

If a 1 inch branch is attached less than 5 foot from the obvious base; include it.

<5 foot

>1 inch

Go to the

lowest foliage

slide69

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

5 foot, 1 inch Rule

<5 feet; include

New Live

Crown Base

>5 feet; exclude

>1 inch

slide70

Uncompacted Live Crown Ratio, Trees

?

?

?

?

>5 feet, >1 inch

50 - 75%?

slide73

Point 1

Point 2

slide74

Crown Light Exposure

  • The number of sides (the top is a side, too) of a tree crown that would receive sunlight if the sun were directly overhead.
slide76

Crown Light Exposure

  • Divide the sapling/tree vertically into 4 sides
  • Divide the crown in such a way that as many sides as possible receive full light
  • To qualify a side must have an ULCR of 35% or more and the entire side (25% of the crown circumference) must receive full light
  • Count the number of sides that would receive light from directly overhead
  • Add 1 for the top if it receives any light
  • Trees with an ULCR of <35% can only have an exposure of 0 or 1
slide78

Crown Light Exposure

In this case, the code for exposure would be 2

slide79

3

1 2

0

4

5

Crown Light Exposure

slide80

25%

Code as 1

Crown Light Exposure

slide81

Sapling/Tree Crown Position

  • The relative position of each tree in relation to the main overstory canopy
slide82

Sapling/Tree Crown Position

  • 2 Conditions (> 1 acre in size)
    • >50% crown cover
      • 1=Superstory (Never for saplings)
      • 2=Overstory
      • 3=Understory
    • <50% crown cover
      • 4=Open grown (all saplings/trees)
slide83

Overstory Canopy Zone

>50% crown cover

1

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

slide84

<50% crown cover

All coded 4

Overstory Canopy Zone

(Most will be coded 5 for crown light exposure)

slide85

<50% crown cover, > 1 acre in size

Scattered

Clumped

Overstory Canopy Zone

All coded 4

(Most will be coded 5 for crown light exposure)

slide86

Crown Density

  • The amount of crown branches, foliage, and reproductive structures that block light visibility through the crown
slide87

Codes

  • Crown density, crown dieback and foliage transparency
    • 00 No Crown
    • 05 1-5%
    • 10 6-10%
    • … …
    • 99 95-100%
slide88

Crown Density Procedure

  • Identify the base of the live crown used for ULCR
  • Mentally project a symmetrical “normal” crown shape for that tree on that site, outlining the crown from branch tip to branch tip above the live crown base, including foliated, dead, and missing portions of the crown
  • Within the crown outline, estimate the percent of sunlight being blocked by all parts of the crown
  • Agree on the best answer with your partner or average and record
slide90

plywood

Density: 100%

Crown Density

slide91

Crown Density

Density: 50%

(½ =100%, ½ =0%)

slide93

Crown Density

Include dead branches, dieback and/or missing top

Include gaps

for symmetry

slide94

Density: 45%

Crown Density

slide95

Crown Density

Density: 65%

slide96

Crown Density

Density: 55%

slide97

Crown Density

Density: 35%

slide98

Crown Density

Dead, no density estimate necessary!

If there was some green, then….

Density: 20%

slide99

Crown Density

Density: 70%

slide100

Crown Density

Oval shape

Density: 65%

slide101

Crown Density

Pyramidal shape

Density: 80%

slide102

Crown Density

Oval shapes

Density: 60%

Density: 50%

slide103

Crown Density

Broad, flat oval

Density 75%

slide104

Crown Dieback

  • Recent mortality of branches with fine twigs
  • Begins at the terminal portion of a branch and proceeds downward and inward towards the crown stem
  • Only considered when in the upper and outer portions of the crown
slide105

Crown Dieback Procedure

  • Identify the base of the live crown used for ULCR
  • Determine the outline by “shrink-wrapping” the foliated and dieback areas of the crown; exclude snag branches and large holes
  • Within the outline, estimate the percentage of area that is dieback
  • Agree on an answer with your partner or average and record
slide107

Crown Dieback

Recent only

Fine twigs attached

slide108

Crown Dieback

Dieback: 15%

slide109

Crown Dieback

Dieback?

Exclude old, stubby dead

slide110

Crown Dieback

Dieback: 15%

slide111

Crown Dieback

Dieback: 25%

slide112

Crown Dieback

Dieback: 75%

slide113

Foliage Transparency

  • The amount of skylight visible through the live, normally foliated portion of the crown or branch.
slide114

Foliage Transparency

  • Identify the base of the live crown used for ULCR
  • Determine the outline by “shrink wrapping” the foliated areas of the crown, but excluding dieback, vines, snag branches and large holes
  • Within the outline, estimate the percent of sunlight being transmitted through the foliage
  • Agree on an answer with your partner or average and record
slide119

Foliage Transparency

Transp: 10-15%

slide120

Foliage Transparency

Transp: 10%

Ignore dieback

slide121

Foliage Transparency

Transp: 15%

Ignore dieback

slide122

Foliage Transparency

Rate what you feel should be present and not necessarily what is present.

  • I.e. a recently defoliated tree should have a transparency of 99, not 0.

Transp: 60-70%

slide124

Foliage Transparency

Transp: 15-20%

slide125

Foliage Transparency

Transp: 40-50%

slide136

Situations

Try to separate the subject

from other trees

Rate the whole crown,

not just the easiest part to see

slide137

Situations

  • Trees with no “crown” by definition (Epicormics or Sprigs only)
    • After a sudden release or damage, a tree may have very dense foliage but no crown
    • Code these trees as
      • ULCR – 00
      • Light Exposure – 0
      • Position – 3
      • Density – 00
      • Dieback – 99
      • Transparency - 99