Conflicts over land
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Conflicts Over Land . 11-2. Objectives. How Native American peoples were forced off their lands in the Southwest. How President Jackson defied the Supreme Court. Cherokee Nation.

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  • How Native American peoples were forced off their lands in the Southwest.

  • How President Jackson defied the Supreme Court.

Cherokee nation
Cherokee Nation

Before European incursion, the Cherokee Nation in Georgia had a thriving civilization. Robust economy, an alphabet, and farming to support their civilization. Then gold was discovered and miners, speculators, and settlers wanted to move in.

Moving native americans
Moving Native Americans

In the Southeast, the “Five Civilized Tribes”, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw, had established farming communities. When Americans wanted their land, they sought help from the government who wanted the tribes to move to lands west of the Mississippi River. This action was supported by President Jackson.

Indian removal act
Indian Removal Act

In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act which authorized the federal government could pay the Indians to move from their lands. In 1834 the Indian Territory was created (present day Oklahoma).

The cherokee fight back
The Cherokee Fight Back

The Cherokee through treaties with Georgia had negotiated status to be an independent nation within Georgia. So the Cherokee were not going to just leave so they took their case to court.

Worchester vs georgia
Worchester vs. Georgia

In a landmark case, the Supreme Court, Chief Justice John Marshall, ruled the Cherokee did not have to move from their land.

Jackson s reaction
Jackson’s Reaction

Jackson had supported Georgia in the case. When he heard the decision, he proclaimed, “John Marshall has made his decision. Now, let him enforce it.”

The trail of tears
The Trail of Tears

In 1835, the Cherokee agreed to a treaty to leave their land. Thousands of Cherokee refused to honor the treaty

General winfield scott
General Winfield Scott

President Jackson sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 troops to remove the Cherokee. The Cherokee left. The trip from Georgia to Oklahoma was filled with danger. The young and old wee most vulnerable. Because of all the hardships, the journey is known as the “Trail of Tears”.

Native american resistance
Native American Resistance

In 1832, Sauk Chieftain Black Hawk led a force of Sauk and Fox back to their native lands in Illinois. This led to a series of clashes with soldiers that included a young Abraham Lincoln.

Seminole wars
Seminole Wars

The Seminoles of Florida led by Chief Osceola successfully resisted attempts to drive them from their lands using guerilla tactics. Eventually, federal forces let the Seminole stay in Florida.

Indian territory
Indian Territory

In Eastern Oklahoma, territory occupied by plains tribes such as the Osage, Comanche, and the Kiowa's, allowed a territory to be created called The Indian Territory.

The five civilized tribes
The Five Civilized Tribes

The Five Civilized Tribes, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and the Choctaw, settled in the Indian Territory where their culture and civilization grew.