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Hawk Hook 11/12 PowerPoint Presentation
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Hawk Hook 11/12

Hawk Hook 11/12

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Hawk Hook 11/12

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  1. Hawk Hook 11/12 • Write the following: • 3 things you know about Christianity • 3 things you know about Islam • 3 things you know about Buddhism.

  2. Religion The Origins, Distribution and Conflicts of Religion

  3. 2 types of Religion • Universalizing Religion • Global, tries to appeal to all people regardless of location or culture (62%) • Ethnic Religion • Appeals to one group living in one place (24%)

  4. Overview of Universalizing Religions • 3 Universalizing religions • Christianity (2 billion: most followers) • Islam (1.3 billion followers) • Buddhism (400 million followers) • 3 Divisions within in each • Branch: Large, fundamental division • Denomination: Divides branch, connect local congregations • Sect: Small group broken away from a denomination

  5. CHRISTIANITY UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS

  6. ORIGINS • All UR origins known • Christian origins: Jesus • Preached: • Principles of Judaism • Love for God, neighbors, enemies, and self • A personal relationship with God • An eternal Kingdom after death for repentant sinners (Heaven) • Ignored wealth and status • “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth”

  7. “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you. If anyone hits you on the cheek, let him hit the other one too; if someone takes your coat, let him have your shirt as well. Give to everyone who asks you for something, and when someone takes what is yours, do not ask for it back. Do for others just what you want them to do for you.”

  8. Jesus’ Death • People believed he was the Messiah • Jewish Priests did not • Roman Gov: Pontius Pilate accused him of defying Roman authority (later tried to stop it but too late) • Crucified • Body disappears • Appeared to followers • Called Jesus “Christ”: • Greek for savior

  9. Branches of Christianity • Roman Catholics: • Oldest Branch • Belief in sacraments for grace • Pope as head of church

  10. Branches of Christianity 2. Eastern Orthodox: • Great Schism • Split from Roman Catholics over worshipping idols in 1054 • Patriarch head bishop but not head sole head of church

  11. Branches of Christianity 3. Protestants • Reformation • Split from Catholics over worshipping Pope • Belief in personal salvation and relationship with God

  12. Diffusion of Christianity • Diffused through all types of diffusion • First: Relocation Diffusion • Missionaries (Paul) • Colonization (God, Gold, & Glory) • Contagious Diffusion: • Daily contact with believers • Hierarchical Diffusion: • Emperors/Kings converted

  13. Christianity in Europe • Roman Catholic • Dominant in Southwest and Eastern Europe • Protestant • Dominant in North West • Eastern Orthodox • Dominant in East and Southeast

  14. Sharp geographic patterns of Protestants and Catholics in Europe • 50/50 in Netherlands but N = P, S = C

  15. Christianity in N & S America • Catholicism • 93 % of Latin America • 29% in North America • US Stats: • 50% Protestant • 24% Catholic

  16. Protestant (denominations) Distribution in US • Baptists in South • Indigenous • First no formal requirements to become clergy • Spread from white masters to slaves • Remained solid in South bc agricultural: little migration into area

  17. Protestant (sect) Distribution in US • Mormons in the West • Founded by Joseph Smith in NY • Persecuted • Under Brigham Young went to Utah for religious freedom • Lack of in-migration • agricultural

  18. Protestant (denomination) Distribution in US • Lutherans in the North–Mid West • Lutheran Germans contracted to farm here • Chain Migration: families moved in • Lack of urbanization kept in-migration down

  19. Catholic Branch Distribution in US • North East, Mid Western Cities • Immigration from Ireland, Italy, E Europe • South West • Immigration from Latin America

  20. What is incomplete about this map? • Over generalizes • Scale of map cannot see diversity within counties and small areas where other religions dominate

  21. Christian Cultural Landscape • Church • Created in the image of God • Considered a sacred space • Attendance important to religion • As such: Considerable wealth spent on building • Reflects beliefs and regional architecture • Catholic and Eastern Orthodox: ostentatious • Protestant: austere and simple reflecting hatred of extravagance

  22. Regular Church Attendance • Europe: 5% • Canada: 10% • US: 46% • 67% in South

  23. Christian Cultural Landscape • Growth of Mega-Churches • Marketable • Often project sermons on TV or radio • Evangelical (halfway between liberal Christians and fundamentalist groups) • Have 2000 or more adherents • Huge churches, usually no crosses

  24. Christian Cultural Landscape • Especially Found in South • Businesses • Billboards • Church signs • Clothing (WWJD bracelets) • Blue Laws • Dry Counties

  25. Holy or Sacred Places • Holy Place: places considered sacred • Universalizing Religion: related to founders life • Ethnic Religions: Related to physical environment • Pilgrimage: journey to a sacred place for religious purposes

  26. Sacred Sites of Christianity • Bethlehem: Birthplace of Jesus • Jerusalem: Site of Crucifixion and Resurrection (Church of Holy Sepulcher)

  27. ISLAM UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS

  28. ORIGINS • Muhammad: descendent of Ishmael • Successful trader • Angel Gabriel came to him • Messenger of Allah (one true God) • Same God as Judaism and Christianity • Believe in Abraham, Moses, and Jesus • Created Islam (622) • Begins with Hijrah (migration to Medina) • Islam means: Submission to the will of Allah • Muslim = one who submitted

  29. BELIEFS • 5 Pillars of Islam • Read the descriptions of the 5 pillars. • What is a simple one-word English Translation of the Arabic? • Summarize the important points of each in one sentence • Draw a sketch to represent each pillar

  30. Can you answer this…? • Map projections that preserve and accurately represent the shape of the geographical areas and features are said to be: • A. Conformal • B. Equidistant • C. Equal-Area • D. Azimuthal • E. useless

  31. 2 Branches of Islam • Sunni (orthodox) 83% • Muhammad last divinely inspired individual • Caliphs (successors of Muhammad) keepers of political independence and religious integrity …NO religious significance • Clustered throughout N Africa and Middle East, Largest number in Indonesia because of its high population

  32. 2 Branches of Islam • Shiites (sectarian) • Caliphs should be descendants of Muhammad which are considered divine by birth • Clustered in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, and Iraq

  33. Diffusion of Islam • Abu-Bakr: 1st Caliph expanded meaning of Jihad • Conquer lands spreading Islam • Religious tolerance for “people of the book”: Christians and Jews

  34. Diffusion of Islam • Relocation Diffusion • Missionaries to Sub-Saharan Africa and SE Asia • Indonesia • 4th most populated country: Muslim • BC of trading

  35. Islam’s Holy Place • The Hajj: to Mecca! • Birthplace of Muhammad • Pilgrimage to the Ka’ba • Cube-like structure at center of Great Mosque • Formally tribal shrine, taken by Muhammad • All Wear Same white robes • Symbolizes unity and equality of Islam • Hajj Visas • 40% from Middle East, 40% N. Africa, 20% Asia • Long travel lessens number of Indonesians

  36. Mosques • Place for community worship • NO clergy, no sermons • Not sanctified • Minaret: tower for Muzzan to summon people to worship

  37. Jihad • Find information on the 3 types of Jihad and answer the question: • Describe the 3 types of Jihad including which is the most important, what is the preferable method to solve problems, and when it is appropriate to use force. • Complete Webquest

  38. Hawk Hook 11/15 • Tell me where each of the following are clustered in the US: • Lutherans • Baptists • Catholics • Mormons • Why are Christian and Jews considered people of the book? • Describe the difference between Sunni’s and Shiites in terms of who should be caliph and why. • What country has the largest % of Shiite Muslims?

  39. BUDDHISM UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS

  40. ORIGINS • Siddhartha Gautama • Father wanted him to be a ruler • Isolated in the Palace, marries, has a son • At 29 4 ventures outside palace • Sees an old man, sick man, corpse, and wondering holy man • Everyone gets old, sick, and dies, only religious path gives peace of mind • Spends 6 years in forests of India seeking Enlightenment • Debated with other religious seekers how to achieve • Tried fasting (ate 8 grains of rice a day!) • Finally meditated for 49 days under a fig tree • Became Buddha (meaning the enlightened one) • First sermon to 5 people who had accompanied him on his journey

  41. Beliefs • Reincarnation • Rejects gods and castes • Ultimate Goal: Nirvana • Release from selfishness and pain • Perfect state of understanding • End of reincarnation • Anyone can reach it • Achieve through Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path • 2 Branches • Theravada: traditional, individuals reach Nirvana at their own speed • Mahayana: all people will reach Nirvana at the same time

  42. The Four Noble Truths • First Noble Truth • Life is filled with suffering and sorrow • Second Noble Truth • People’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures causes suffering • Third Noble Truth • The way to end all suffering is to end all desire • Fourth Noble Truth • The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is the Eightfold Path

  43. Eightfold Path Right Views Right Concen-tration Right Resolve Right Speech Right Mind-fulness Right Conduct Right Effort Right Livelihood

  44. Diffusion • Missionaries • 257 Asoka (ruler of India Buddhist) sponsored missionaries in Sri Lanka, Kashmir, Himalayas, Myanmar • Trading to China

  45. Holy Places of Buddhism • Related to important events in Buddha’s life • 2 most important: • Lumbini, Nepal (Buddha’s birthplace) • Bodh Gaya, India (where he reaches nirvana) • Sights where his miracles took place

  46. Buddha’s miracles • It is said that immediately after the birth of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became known as The Buddha, he stood up, took seven steps north, and fearlessly uttered: • "Supreme am I in the worldGreatest am I in the world.Noblest am I in the world.This is my last birth,Never shall I be reborn" • Twin Miracle • Taming the Elephant • Ascending to Heaven

  47. Pagodas • Pagodas: “stupas” contain relics of Buddha’s body or clothing • Remains divided into 8 places where Buddhism spread • Not for congregational worship

  48. Hawk Hook 11/16 • For the 3 main Universalizing religions: Compare and contrast the sacred spaces and the purpose of their religious architecture