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Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance

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Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance

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  1. Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance Anatomy & Physiology II Chapter 21

  2. Balance • cellular function requires a fluid medium with a carefully controlled composition • three types of homeostatic balance • water balance • average daily water intake and loss are equal • electrolyte balance • the amount of electrolytes absorbed by the small intestine balance with the amount lost from the body, usually in urine • acid-base balance • the body rids itself of acid (hydrogen ion – H+) at a rate that balances metabolic production

  3. Balance • balances maintained by the collective action of the urinary, respiratory, digestive, integumentary, endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular, and lymphatic systems

  4. Body Water • newborn baby’s body weight is about 75% water • young men average 55% - 60% • women average slightly less • obese and elderly people as little as 45% by weight • total body water (TBW) of a 70kg (150 lb) young make is about 40 liters

  5. Fluid Compartments • major fluid compartments of the body • 65% intracellular fluid (ICF) • 35% extracellular fluid (ECF) • 25% tissue (interstitial) fluid • 8% blood plasma and lymphatic fluid • 2% transcellular fluid ‘catch-all’ category • cerebrospinal, synovial, peritoneal, pleural, pericardial fluids, vitreous and aqueous humors of the eye, bile, and fluids of the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts

  6. Water Movement Between Fluid Compartments • fluid continually exchanged between compartments • water moves by osmosis • because water moves so easily through plasma membranes, osmotic gradients never last for very long • if imbalance arises, osmosis restores balance within seconds so the intracellular and extracellular osmolarity are equal • if osmolarity of the tissue fluid rises, water moves out of the cell • if it falls, water moves in

  7. Water Movement Between Fluid Compartments • osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by the relative concentrations of solutes in each compartment • electrolytes – the most abundant solute particles, by far • sodium salts in ECF • potassium salts in ICF • electrolytes play the principal role in governing the body’s water distribution and total water content

  8. Water Movement Between Fluid Compartments Intracellular fluid Digestive tract Bloodstream Bloodstream Tissue fluid Lymph

  9. Water Gain • fluid balance - when daily gains and losses are equal (about 2,500 mL/day) • gains come from two sources: • preformed water (2,300 mL/day) • ingested in food (700 mL/day) and drink (1600 mL/day) • metabolic water (200 mL/day) • by-product of aerobic metabolism and dehydration synthesis • C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

  10. Water Loss • sensible water loss is observable • 1,500 mL/ day is in urine • 200 mL/day is in feces • 100 mL/day is sweat in resting adult • insensible water loss is unnoticed • 300 mL/day in expired breath • 400 mL/day is cutaneous transpiration • diffuses through epidermis and evaporates • does not come from sweat glands • loss varies greatly with environment and activity

  11. Fluid Balance Intake 2,500 mL/day Output 2,500 mL/day Metabolic water 200 mL Feces 200 mL Expired air 300 mL Food 700 mL Cutaneous transpiration 400 mL Sweat 100 mL Drink 1,600 mL Urine 1,500 mL

  12. The Importance of Water Body fluid maintenance • Thirst mechanism maintains volume • Kidney activity regulates volume and composition • Hormones regulate fluid volume and electrolytes • Buffers, respiration, and kidney function regulate pH

  13. Sense of Thirst Control center for thirst • Located in hypothalamus • Regulates total fluid volume • Excessive thirst -- polydipsia

  14. Regulation of Fluid Intake • thirst mainly governs fluid intake • dehydration • reduces blood volume and blood pressure • increases blood osmolarity • osmoreceptors in hypothalamus • respond to angiotensin II produced when BP drops and to rise in osmolarity of ECF with drop in blood volume • hypothalamus produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

  15. Regulation of Fluid Intake • cerebral cortex produces conscious sense of thirst • intense sense of thirst with 2-3% increase in plasma osmolarity or10-15% blood loss • salivation is inhibited with thirst

  16. Thirst Satiation Mechanisms • long term inhibition of thirst • absorption of water from small intestine reduces osmolarity of blood • stops the osmoreceptor response, promotes capillary filtration, and makes the saliva more abundant and watery • changes require 30 minutes or longer to take effect • short term inhibition of thirst • cooling and moistening of mouth quenches thirst • distension of stomach and small intestine • 30 to 45 min of satisfaction • must be followed by water being absorbed into the bloodstream or thirst returns • short term response designed to prevent overdrinking

  17. Dehydration, Thirst, and Rehydration Dehydration Increased blood osmolarity Reduced blood pressure Renin Dehydration Angiotensin II Stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors Stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors Reduced salivation Dry mouth ? Thirst Sense of thirst Ingestion of water Short-term inhibition of thirst Cools and moistens mouth Distends stomach and intestines Long-term inhibition of thirst Rehydrates blood Rehydration

  18. Regulation of Water Output • only way to control water output significantly, is through variation in urine volume • kidneys can’t replace water or electrolytes • only slow rate of water and electrolyte loss until water and electrolytes can be ingested

  19. Regulation of Water Output • mechanisms: • changes in urine volume linked to adjustments in Na+ reabsorption • as Na+ is reabsorbed or excreted, water follows • concentrate the urine through action of ADH • ADH secretion stimulated by hypothalamic osmoreceptors in responsetodehydration • aquaporins synthesized in response to ADH • membrane proteins in renal collecting ducts whose job is to channel water back into renal medulla, Na+is still excreted • slows decrease in water volume andincreasedosmolarity – concentrates urine • ADH release inhibited when blood volume and pressure is too high or blood osmolarity too low • effective way to compensate for hypertension

  20. Secretion and Effects of ADH Dehydration H2O H2O Na+ Na+ Elevates blood osmolarity Negative feedback loop Stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors Negative feedback loop Stimulates posterior pituitary to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Water ingestion Stimulates distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct Thirst Increases water reabsorption Reduces urine volume Increases ratio of Na+: H2O in urine

  21. Disorders of Water Balance • the body is in a state of fluid imbalance if there is an abnormality of total volume, concentration, or distribution of fluid among the compartments • fluid deficiency – fluid output exceeds intake over long period of time • volume depletion (hypovolemia) • occurs when proportionate amounts of water and sodium are lost without replacement • total body water declines, but osmolarity remains normal • hemorrhage, severe burns, chronic vomiting, or diarrhea • dehydration (negative water balance) • body eliminates significantly more water than sodium • total body water declines, osmolarity rises • lack of drinking water, diabetes, ADH hyposecretion (diabetes insipidus), profuse sweating, overuse of diuretics • infants more vulnerable to dehydration than adults due to high metabolic rate that demands high urine excretion, immature kidneys cannot concentrate urine effectively, greater ratio of body surface to mass • affects all fluid compartments (ICF, blood, and tissue fluid) • most serious effects: • circulatory shock due to loss of blood volume, neurological dysfunction due to dehydration of brain cells, infant mortality from diarrhea

  22. Electrolytes and Their Functions Conduct electrical current in solution • Positive ions (cations) • Sodium • Potassium • Calcium • Negative ions (anions) • Phosphate • Chloride

  23. Electrolyte Balance • Kidneys do majority of balancing • Hormones involved • Aldosterone (adrenal cortex) • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (pituitary) • Parathyroid hormone (parathyroid & thyroid glands) • Calcitonin hormone (thyroid) • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (from the heart)

  24. Acid–Base Balance • pH scale measures hydrogen ion (H+) concentration • Body fluids have normal pH of 7.35 to 7.45 • Three-tenths of a point shift in either direction is fatal

  25. Regulation of pH • Buffer systems accept or release ions as needed • Bicarbonate • Phosphate • Proteins • Respiration provides short-term regulation • Kidney function provides long-term regulation

  26. Abnormal pH • Acidosis • pH less than 7.35 • Depressed nervous system • Alkalosis • pH greater than 7.45 • Excited nervous system • Origins • Respiratory—change in blood CO2 • Metabolic—change in other acids

  27. Disorders of Body Fluids • Edema • Water intoxication • Effusion • Ascites • Dehydration

  28. Fluid Therapy Fluids administered intravenously • Normal (.9%) saline • 5% dextrose in .45% saline • 5% dextrose in water • Ringer lactate solution • Serum albumin 25% • Nutritional solutions

  29. End of Presentation