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PART II Solutions

PART II Solutions. Supply Chain Software. Supply Chain Software( 供應鏈軟體 ). Fifty years ago, supply chains were designed and managed using the time- honored tools of paper and pencil, with a little help from calculators. Today, it

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PART II Solutions

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  1. PART II Solutions Supply Chain Software

  2. Supply Chain Software(供應鏈軟體) Fifty years ago, supply chains were designed and managed using the time- honored tools of paper and pencil, with a little help from calculators. Today, it would be almost unthinkable to operate a large supply chain without extensive software support. But there is a bewildering array of software to choose from, and picking the wrong package can bring your supply chain to a standstill. This chapter provides a guided tour of supply chain software, starting with classic manufacturing systems and winding up with specialty applications designed for specific supply chain problems. The tour concludes with a look athow the Internet is changing the way trading partners coordinate the flow of demand, supply, and cash across the supply chain. Supply Chain Software 50年前,供應鏈之設計與管理是採用紙及筆這類常青工具(time-honored tools),加上一些計算機(calculators)的幫助。今天若沒有很完備的軟體支 援,幾乎難以想像如何去營運一個大型供應鏈。但是軟體種類繁多,令人 在選擇上非常困擾,如挑選到不對的套裝軟體很可能使整個供應鏈停頓下 來。本章提供供應鏈軟體的一個導覽,從傳統製造系統開始,並以為特殊 供應鏈問題設計的專業應用系統結束。最後以觀察網際網路如何改變貿易 夥伴,在供應鏈中協調需求(demand)、供應(supply)及帳款(cash)的方法總 結。

  3. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) A management matrix provides the context The easiest way to understand the many forms of supply chain software is to view them in the context of the business processes they support. The matrix in Figure 6.1 categorizes these processes in a way that reflects the structure of this book. The rows of the matrix correspond to the operational, planning, and design levels of management, and the columns reflect processes concerned with supply, production, and demand. All of the processes shown in the matrix are discussed in the appropriate chapters in Parts III through V. In the present chapter, I take the processes as given and focus on the software. 管理矩陣之利用 瞭解許多供應鏈軟體型態最簡單的方法就是,去觀察其支援 企業程序的內涵。圖6.1的管理矩陣(management matrix)將這些企業 程序加以分類,也反映出本書之結構。矩陣列(row of matrix)對應 的是管理的作業(operational)、規劃(Planning)及設計(design)層次; 而矩陣欄(columnls of matrix)顯示有關供應、生產及需求的程序。矩 陣的所有程序將會於本書第三篇到第五篇適當章節中加以討論,本 章將視程序為已知,並著重在軟體之介紹。

  4. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) A management matrix provides the context

  5. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) ERP is the dominant manufacturing system Because supply chains are concerned with moving manufactured goods, the functions of supply chain software are a natural extension of existing manufacturing systems. Today, the dominant software in manufacturing companies is the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Although the emphasis of ERP is on the internal operations of a manufacturing organization—the activities that take place "inside the four walls"—many of the applications included in ERP packages are directly relevant to supply chain activities. ERP是主要製造資訊系統 因為供應鏈涉及的是成品之移動,供應鏈軟體的相關功能就是現有製造系 統一個自然的延伸。今日,在製造公司占有支配地位的軟體為企業資源規 劃(enterprise resource planning, ERP)系統。儘管ERP著重的是生產組織的 內部作業---發生在「四面牆裡面」的活動,許多包含在ERP中的應用模組 直接與供應鏈活動有關。

  6. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) The heart of ERP is production Planning ERP systems can be difficult to understandbecause they have become so large and complex over the years, incorporating a tremendous array of functions and touching almost every area of a manufacturing company. However, the essence of ERP can be understood by placing a handful of key modules in the context of the management matrix, as shown in Figure 6.2. The heart of an ERP system is a set of planning modules that translate anticipated demand into plans for managing supply, production, and distribution. The other modules help a company implement these plans by providing computerized support for purchasing, receiving, sales, and other operations. ERP的核心是生產規劃 企業資源規劃(ERP)系統可能不易理解,因為經過多年之發展,這些系統 已經變得非常龐大又複雜,且包含非常多的功能,並幾乎涉及所有製造組 織的各個層面。不過,ERP本質仍可藉由圖6.2管理矩陣中的關鍵模組加 以瞭解。ERP系統的核心是一組規劃模組(Planning modules),可將預測需 求(anticipated demands)轉換為管理供應(supply)、生產(Production)及配銷 (distribution)之各項計畫。其他模組則可協助公司執行這些計畫,主要在 於提供採購(purchasing)、進貨(receiving)、銷售(sales),以及其他作業所需 之電腦化支援。

  7. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) The heart of ERP is production Planning

  8. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) Planning works backward from Distribution The basic flow of ERP-based planning is shown in Figure 6.2. Using historical and expected sales as input, the distribution requirements planning (DRP) module builds a distribution plan that indicates how many products of each type need to be at each location in each period. The resulting plan is passed as input to the master production scheduling (MPS) module, which works out when production will have to occur in order to meet the distribution schedule. The MPS module then calls on the services of two other modules to validate its schedule:The material requirements planning (MRP) modulemakes sure that all the necessary materials and components can be acquired in time, and the capacity requirements planning (CRP) modulechecks to see whether the available production facilities will be able to perform the work. 規劃從配銷向後進行 ERP規劃的基本流程顯示於圖6.2中。使用歷史性及預測性銷售數據為輸 入資料,配銷需求規劃(distribution requirements planning, DRP)模組建立一 份配銷計畫,顯示每一期間在每個地點所需每一種產品的數量。DRP完成 的計畫將作為主生產排程(master production scheduling,MPS)模組的輸入 資料,如此生產排程才能跟配銷排程接軌。MPS模組接著尋求另二個模組 的服務支援,以驗證其排程之正確性,此兩模組為:物料需求規劃(material requirement planning,MRP)及產能需求規劃(capacity requirements planning,CRP)。MRP模組確認所需物料及零組件都可及時取得,產能需 求規劃(CRP)模組查核可用產能設備是否可以使用。

  9. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) ERP supports several aspects of supply chains Although the focus of ERP is on production planning, several ofthe modules include tools for supply chain management. The material requirements plan generated by the MRP modulecan be fed directly into the purchasing system as a schedule of proposed purchases, and the distribution plan generated by the DRP moduleis used to choreograph shipments of finished goods through an echelon distribution system. In addition, the receiving and shipping modules handle the flow of materials in and out of the company, and the inventory control module monitors the current stocks of raw materials, work in process, and finished goods. ERP支援供應鏈的數個構面 雖然企業資源規劃(ERP)的重心放在生產規劃,但是有幾個模組是屬於供 應鏈管理的工具。物料需求規劃(MRP)模組產生的物料需求計晝可以直接 輸入採購系統,作為採購時程建議表;而配銷需求規劃(DRP)模組產生的配 銷計晝則可用於調節層級配銷系統(echelon distribution system)中成品的運 送時程。此外,進貨與出貨模組(receiving and shipping modules)可以處理 進出公司的物料流程;存貨控制模組(inventory control module)則可監控原 物料、在製品及製成品之現有存貨動態。

  10. The Manufacturing Platform(製造資訊乎台) ERP is best suited for single plants Although many companies use ERP systems to manage their supply chains, ERP by itself is rarely the best option. ERP was developed to manage the activities within a single production facility, and it doesn't lend itself to planning activities that span multiple facilities. Most ERP packages can, in fact, be used for more than one plant, but they plan the activities of each plant individually rather than developing an integrated plan that makes the best use of all the plants. Another concern is that, as explained in Chapter 11, the scheduling technique used by ERP was designed for the controlled environment of a manufacturing facility, and it lacks the flexibility necessary to handle the more dynamic requirements of supply chains. ERP使用在單一工廠時最有效 儘管許多公司使用ERP系統來管理他們的供應鏈,只靠ERP本身並不是最 好的選擇。ERP之開發目的原在管理單一設施的內部活動,並無法做好橫 跨多個設施的規劃活動。多數ERP套裝軟體可以使用於不同的工廠,但是 這些軟體只能為每個工廠單獨進行規劃,無法發展出一個考量所有工廠最 佳使用方式的整合性計畫。另一個顧慮是(第11章會再加以說明),ERP使 用的排程技術是針對一個製造設施的控制環境而設計,缺乏處理供應鏈動 態需求所必須的彈性。

  11. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS concentrates on design and planning The most important application directly aimed at managing supply chainsis the advanced planning and scheduling (APS) system. As with ERP systems, APS systems include a large number of modules that can be combined in various ways, and not every vendor offers the same selection of modules. However, the modules shown in Figure 6.3 are common to most APS systems, and they give a fair representation of APS capabilities. A comparison of this figure with Figure 6.2 quickly reveals the most important difference between ERP and APS: Whereas ERP supports the lower two layers of the process matrix, planning and operations, APS focuses on the upper two layers, combining planning with design. APS專注於設計與規劃 最重要的供應鏈管理應用系統就是進階規劃與排程系統(adVanced planning scheduling system, APS)。與ERP系統相似,APS系統包含許多模 組,可以透過不同的組合方式來購買,並且每家供應商提供的模組選擇可 能都有一些差異。不過,圖6,3中之模組包含了大多數APS系統提供的模 組,對APS功能之描述已非常完備。與圖6.2相比,圖6,3可以很快顯示 出ERP與APS的最大差異:ERP支援程序矩陣的下二層,規劃(planning)和作 業(operations);進階規劃與排程系統(APS)聚焦在上二層,將規劃(planning) 與設計(design)結合。

  12. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS concentrates on design and planning

  13. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS can plan an entire supply chain Unlike ERP, which is primarily concerned with production facilities, APS takes a network of supply chain facilities as its starting point. Setting up an APS system involves using the network design module to enter a detailed description of the chain, including its facilities, transportation links, and other characteristics. Once this information is in place, the planning process follows the arrows shown in Figure 6.3. First, the demand planning module forecasts the demand for each product in each region. The master planning module then combines this forecast with the capabilities of the chain as described to the network design module, developing an overall plan for moving supplies through the chain. In order to develop that plan, it calls on the services of three specialized modules to analyze the impact of the master plan on materials, production capacity, and distribution requirements. APS可以規劃整個供應鏈 不像企業資源規劃(ERP),主要關注於生產設施,APS以供應鏈中許多設施所 形成的網路為起始點。設定APS系統須先使用網路設計模組(network design module),輸入供應鏈的詳細資料,包含相關設施、運輸連結及其他特性資 料。一旦具備這些基本資訊,規劃程序則順著圖6.3的箭頭方向進行。首先, 需求規劃模組(demand Planning module)預測每一產品在每一區域的需求數 量,然後主規劃模組(master planning module)將此預測與網路設計模組描述的 供應鏈能力結合,發展出供應物品(supplies)在供應鏈中移動的整體計畫。為 了完成這個計畫,APS使用三個專業模組(物料規劃、生產規劃及配銷規劃)的 服務,分析物料、產能及配銷需求對主計畫的影響。

  14. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS is based on optimizing models APS offers a number of advantages over ERP, including a more flexible scheduling system that can handle the more varied requirements of supply chain management. The most compelling advantage of an APS system, however, is that it is based on mathematical models that support optimization, including the linear programming method described in Chapter 5. These models are used for design as well as planning, so an APS gives you the opportunity to optimize not only the schedule of operationsbut also the very structure of your supply chain. The optimization is done against any measures of performance you choose to specify, including cost, customer service, and profitability. APS乃植基於最佳化模式(優化模式) APS提供數項超越ERP的優點,包含一個更具彈性的排程系統,可以處理 供應鏈管理更多變的要求。然而,APS系統最吸引人的優勢是,它乃植基 於支援最佳化分析的數學模式(mathematical models),包含第5章敘述的線 性規劃方法(linear programming method)。這些模式既可用於設計也可用於 規劃,因此,進階規劃與排程系統(APS)不但提供將作業排程(operational schedules)最佳化的機會,也同時提供供應鏈結構(supply chain structure)最 佳化的機會。最佳化可依據任何你所指定的績效評量指標(measures of performance)進行,不論這些指標是成本(cost)、顧客服務(customer service)或獲利性(profitability)。

  15. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS is usually linked to ERP systems Although APS systems offer sophisticated planning and scheduling capabilities, they don't provide the operational modules necessary to translate these plans into action. The usual solution to this problem is to link APS systems into existing ERP systems. The most effective way to combine the two applications is to use a single APS system to plan the movement of goods across a number of production facilities, each of which is managed by a local ERP system (Figure 6.4). This approach offers the best of both worlds, combining the advantages of ERP and APS to provide a level of integration that isn't possible with either type alone. APS通常與ERP間有連結 雖然APS提供了細緻的規劃及排程能力,但是卻未提供將計畫轉換為行動 所必須的作業模組。解決此問題的通常方式,就是將APS系統連結到現有 的企業資源規劃(EKP)系統。結合此二種應用系統最有效的方法是使用一 套APS系統來規劃一組生產設施間物料的移動,而每一個設施就交給各設 施自己的ERP系統管理,見圖6.4。這個方法結合了兩套系統的優點,提 供任何單一系統所無法提供的整合水準。

  16. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS is usually linked to ERP systems

  17. Advanced Planning Systems(進階規劃系統) APS is likely to merge into ERP Linking APS and ERP systems is a substantial undertaking (see Chapter 11), and the cooperation between the two kinds of systems is still somewhat limited. However, this situation is already beginning to change for the better. ERP vendors have a history of absorbing new application categories that affect enterprise-level planning, and they are already hard at work rolling in supply chain software. Several vendors now offer APS modules that communicate with their existing ERP modules, and other vendors are likely to follow suit in order to remain competitive. In the meantime, be cautious about ERP vendors that claim to support supply chains; they could be offering anything from a full suite of APS modules to an ad hoc collection of the supporting applications described in the next section. Ch.11, which provides a more detailed description of how ERP and APS modules work together, should give you enough information to make an informed choice. APS有可能與ERP合併 連結APS及ERP (linking APS and ERP)系統是一項大工程(見第11章),且二種 系統間之合作仍然有些限制。然而此種情況已經開始好轉。ERP供應商善於 將影響企業層次規劃的應用系統類型整併到ERP中,而且他們目前正在努力 合併供應鏈的應用軟體。數家供應商目前已提供可以與他們ERP系統溝通的 APS模組,其他供應商為了維持競爭力極可能會跟進。在此同時,對於聲稱 可以支援供應鏈的ERP供應商則需要謹慎瞭解;因為他們可能提供大到完整的 所有APS模組,或小到只提供一些特定的支援性應用模組。第11章將提供 ERP與APS模組如何一起運作的更詳細介紹,應足夠讓企做出合適的選擇。

  18. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Warehouse systems focus on operation In addition to ERP and APS, there are several other kinds of applications that serve the needs of supply chain management.Figure 6.5 shows some of the key modules of a warehouse management system. As the diagram indicates, these packages focus primarily on operations, offering just enough planning functionality to smooth the flow of inventory through the facility. In addition, there are no modules for production because that's not a traditional function of warehouses, although this is beginning to change (see Chapter 15). 倉庫系統著重在作業面 除了企業資源規劃(ERP)及進階規劃與排程系統(APS)之外,還有幾種可以 滿足供應鏈管理需求的應用系統。圖6.5顯示一套倉庫管理系統 (warehouse management system, WMS)提供的主要功能模組。如圖6.5所 示,這類套裝軟體主要著重於營運作業,只提供有限的規劃功能,使存貨 可以平順地通過一座設施。此外,該圖沒有與生產相關的模組,因為生產 不是傳統倉庫的功能,雖然這已在逐漸改變中(詳第15章)。

  19. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Warehouse systems focus on operation

  20. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Warehouse systems focus on operation The modules on the supply sideare concerned with automating the process of receiving incoming goods and assigning them to the appropriate storage locations, and the modules on the demand sideare concerned with assembling outbound orders and preparing them for shipment.The materials handling modulebridges the gap between the two sets of modules, and the yard management module governsthe movements of vehicles, containers, and inventory held in staging areas adjacent to the warehouse. 倉庫系統著重在作業面 物料搬運模組(materials handling module)則為銜接上述兩模組間的橋樑。 場站管理模組(yard management module)管理的是車輛、容器及擺置於暫存 區存貨的移動。供應端的模組與進貨(receiving)及分派最適倉儲位置 (storage location assignments)程序自動化有關;而需求端的模組則與組合外 向訂單(assembling outbound orders)及訂單運送準備(preparing shipments)有 關。

  21. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Transportation systems are highly specialized Another important class of supply chain software is the transportation management system (Figure 6.6). A complete system includes everything from network design tools down to operational applications for tracking shipments, scheduling drivers, and determining how much it will cost to run a shipment between any two points. Because transportation requirements differ across industries and modalities—scheduling tanker ships is quite different from tracking the locations of rail cars—transportation systems are usually highly specialized for individual markets. 運輸系統非常專業化 另一項供應鏈軟體的重要類別是運輸管理系統(transportation management system, TMS)(見圖6.6)。一套完整系統包含許多功能,網路設計工具 (network design tools)及貨件追蹤(tracking shipments)、駕駛人員排班 (scheduling drivers)、最佳途程決定(optimal routing)等作業應用。因為運輸 要求依據產業及運輸模式之不同而有差異----油輪排程與火車位置追蹤是 非常地不一樣----運輸系統在個別市場中都有很高的專業性。

  22. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Transportation systems are highly specialized

  23. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) CRM and SRM help manage relationships Warehouse and transportation management systems have been around for many years. The newest generation of software includes the applications shown in Figure 6.7. One of these, customer relationship management (CRM), is designed to integrate all customer-contact activities, including sales, service, and support. Newer still is the logical counterpart of CRM, supplier relationship management (SRM). CRM and SRM are usually limited to interactions with immediate trading partners, so they each span only a single link in the supply chain. However, some of the more advanced CRM packages include the ability to support relationships with customers , and it seems likely that SRM packages will be extended in a comparable manner. CRM及SRM有助於關係管理 倉庫及運輸管理系統已存在多年。新世代軟體包含圖6.7中的相關應用模 組。其中之一是顧客關係管理(customer relationship management,CRM), 是設計來整合與顧客接觸的所有相關活動,包含銷售(sales)、服務(service) 及支援(support)。更新的應用模組為與CRM相似的供應商關係管理 (supplier relationship management, SRM)。CRM及SRM通常侷限於直接貿 易夥伴間(immediate trading partners)互動關係之管理,所以它們只涵蓋供 應鏈的單一連結(a single link)。然而有一些更先進的CRM軟體其有能力支 援顧客的顧客之關係(relationships with customers` customers),而SRM套裝 軟體似乎會有跟CRM一般的延伸性發展。

  24. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) CRM and SRM help manage relationships

  25. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) The newest applications monitor movements One of the most recent and exciting developments is the emergence of the supply chain visibility applications shown in the upper part of Figure 6.7. These applications track the movement of inventory as it flows through the chain, providing graphical displays that show expected and actual levels at each location. A closely related category is supply-chain event management software, which offers the ability to define business rules that trigger when specified events occur (or fail to occur). This software allows supply chain managers to focus their attention on managing exceptionsrather than having to personally monitor every movement and compare it against plan. 最新應用模組可以監控物品移動 一個最近且令人興奮的發展,是圖6.7中上方位置供應鏈能見度應用模組 (supply chain visibility applications)的出現。這類應用系統追蹤存貨在供應 鏈中之移動,提供每一地點預期及實際存貨量水準的圖形顯示。另一非常 類似的應用系統是供應鏈事件管理(supply chain event management, SCEM) 軟體,具有能力定義商業規則(business rules),並在某特定事件遵守(或違 背)該規則時,發出提醒訊號(trigger an alert)。這套軟體模組使得供應鏈經 理(supply chain managers)可以專注於異常管理(managing exceptions),而無 須親自監管每批貨物的移動再與計畫比較。

  26. Supply Chain Applications(供應鏈應用系統) Design tools aid in constructing the chain Some of the most sophisticated systems for supply chain management are used in the design of the chain itself. Although this capability is built into APS systems, it is also available in stand-alone packages. Some of these systems use mathematical models to find optimal designs, and others use simulators to construct highly realistic models. The best systems offer a mix of these approaches, allowing each kind of model to compensate for the limitations of the other. 設計工具有助於供應鏈之建構 供應鏈管理最細緻化的一些系統已被使用於供應鏈之設計上。雖然這項能 力已建構於進階規劃與排程系統(APS)上,不過我們也可以在單獨的套裝 軟體(stand-alone packages)中找到。有些系統使用數學模式(mathematical models)找出最佳設計,而有些系統則使用模擬運算器(simulators)建構非 常真實的模式。最好的系統提供這幾種不同方法之綜合(combination of different methods),允許每種模式補足(compensate)其他模式的限制。

  27. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Modeling is the foundation of these systems A critical yet rarely understood aspect of the software systems described in this chapter is that these systems are all based on models of the supply chain. Some of the models are explicit and directly modifiable by users. Supply chain design systems, in particular, display a conceptual model of a chain in a graphical form to help designers understand and alter the structure of the chain. These systems then test the quality of a design by expressing it in the form of a mathematical or simulation model and evaluating that model to see how well it performs. Designing a supply chain is, in effect, an exercise in modeling. 建模是這些軟體系統的基礎 本章所介紹的軟體系統有一個重要但甚少被瞭解的層面就是,這些系統全 部植基於供應鏈模式。有些模式非常明確且可由使用者直接修改。特別是 供應鏈設計系統(supply chain design systems)可以圖形方式顯示一個供應鏈 的觀念模式,協助設計者瞭解與修改這個供應鏈的結構。隨後,這些系統 會利用數學或模擬模式來檢測供應鏈設計的品質,並評估這些模式以檢視 其績效。實際上,設計供應鏈即為一項建模的工作。

  28. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Most of the models are implicit and fixed Unfortunately, the explicit, modifiable models used in design systems are the exception rather than the rule. Although planning and operational systems also rely on models, these models are usually buried deep in the software and cannot be modified. ERP systems, for example, are based on a model in which quantities of goods are produced or transported during fixed intervals called time buckets, which are most commonly weeks. Production and distribution plans are constructed by working backward from the required quantities of finished goods to figure out how much purchasing and production has to occur in each time bucket. In this model, all work is done on the last possible date given the current constraints on materials and capacity. 大部分模式都是內建且固定的 不幸地,使用於設計系統的明確、可修改的模式只是一個例外而非常態。 雖然規劃與作業系統也依賴於模式,但這些模式卻通常深埋於軟體之中而 無法修改。舉例來說,企業資源規劃(ERP)系統乃是根基於一種模式,在 此模式中,貨品數量設定為在一固定時間間隔下之生產與運送量,此時間 間隔稱為「時間帶」(time buckets),通常是以星期為單位。生產與配銷計 畫的建立是以製成品需求數量反向規劃,計算出在每一個時間帶下應採購 和生產數量的多寡。在此模式中,須先設定當前物料與產能的限制,所有 工作會在可能的最後日期(the last possible date)下完成。

  29. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Some models are historical artifacts How did this model come to be the standard technique for production planning? In large part, it is a historical artifact that has been codified in the architecture of manufacturing software. The model was developed back in the days before computers, when all planning was done on blackboards or large sheets of grid paper, and it reflects the limitations of human planners trying to cope with large matrices of numbers. The earliest planning systems simply translated the manual procedure into a program, relieving people of the need to move quantities from one time bucket to another by repeatedly erasing and rewriting numbers. 有些模式起源自早期的人工作法 這個模式如何成為生產規劃的標準技術呢?大體而言,它是從生產製造軟 體之結構所編譯出來,乃具歷史意義的人類產品。這個模式的發展可以追 溯到電腦出現之前,當時所有的規劃都必須在黑板或大型格紙上進行,這 也反映出當時規劃師嘗試去處理大型數量矩陣的限制。最早的規劃系統僅 僅將人工程序編入程式中,減輕那些需要藉由不斷擦去與寫入數字,將數 量從一個時間帶移到另一個時間帶之排程規劃師的負荷。

  30. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Some models are historical artifacts This was a major breakthrough at the time because it greatly reduced the time necessary to construct a workable plan. But it did nothing to improve the planning process itself, which to this day is still based on doing everything as late as possible, and it has no ability to find optimal solutions based on business concerns such as cost. Compared to the power of contemporary models, the model underlying ERP scheduling is pretty simplistic. But once this model was transferred to a computer, it was never changed. 有些模式起源自早期的人工作法 在當時這是一個很重要的突破,因為它大大降低建構一個可行計畫方案所 需花費的時間。但在改善規劃程序上它卻毫無建樹,一直到現在,它的所 有工作仍是依據盡可能在最後一個可能日期完成。同時,它也沒有能力去 發掘企業所關切(如成本等)的最佳解。與當代不同模式的能力相比,企業 資源規劃(ERP)排程使用的模式是相當簡單的。但是一旦這個模式被轉移 到電腦上後,它就不曾改變過。

  31. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Lack of modifiability can be crippling A weak model wouldn't be so bad if it could be modified, but Systems with implicit, hard-wired models don't offer that option. The result is that using one of these systems requires a company to adapt its business to the software rather than the other way around. This problem is most apparent with ERP systemsbecause they automate so many core business functions,but it's also true of more recent systems such as the CRM packages, which are based on implicit models of how companies interact with their customers. Many companies insist that vendors modify their software to conform to the way they actually do business, but these customization efforts often lead to failed installations and maintenance nightmares. The spectacular failure of Nike's customized APS system described in Ch1 illustrates the perils of this approach. 修改能力不足將使營運不順暢 一個薄弱的模式假如可以修改的話也不是很糟糕的,但是擁有內建且僵硬模 式的軟體系統並未提供此項選擇。結果是,如欲使用這些系統,企業需要調 整其商業模式來適應這些軟體,而不是相反的做法。這個問題在使用ERP系 統時最為明顯,因為它們會自動化很多核心企業功能。不過較新的軟體系統 也有相同的問題,如顧客關係管理套裝軟體(CRM packages),係根基於公司 應如何與其顧客互動之內建模式。很多公司堅持他們的供應商應修改軟體, 以符合他們商業模式的實況,但這些客製化努力的結果通常導致安裝失敗與 維修夢魘。第1章所描述耐吉(Nike)客製化進階規劃與排程系統(APS)的失敗 案例,即說明此方法的危險性。

  32. Implicit Business Models(內建商業模式) Be aware of models in choosing software The presence of implicit business models in supply chain software is a problem without a good solution. Minor tweaks may help, but deep customization is rarely successful. In most cases, the choice comes down to "their way or no way," and that's not the kind of decision you should have to make when buying a multimilliondollar system. But what are the alternatives? Supply chain software is now so large and complex that building your own system is rarely a viable option, and trying to run a large chain without software is a nonstarter in today's fast- paced markets. The best you can do is to be aware that implicit business models are lurking inside all commercial software packages and carefully choose the model that comes closest to fitting the way you do business. Once you've found the closest match, be prepared to change your operations to conform to the model. It may be a galling choice, but the alternatives are worse. 選擇軟體必須清楚它內建的模式 供應鏈軟體中內建商業模式(implicit business models)的存在,是一個無法找出 良好解決方法的問題。小幅度修改(minor tweaks)或許有幫助,但深度客製化 則通常不易成功。在大多數的案例中,選擇通常是「不是採用他們的方法就 是根本不要採用」(their way or no way),而當你購買數百萬美元系統時,這 不應該是你做決策的方式。那麼替代方案還有哪些呢?現今的供應鏈軟體已變 得非常龐大與複雜,要自己建構一個系統根本不是一項可行的選擇,而在今 日變化快速的市場中,嘗試不用軟體經營一個大型的供應鏈根本是緣木求 魚。你唯一可以做的是,瞭解到內建商業模式是潛藏在所有的商業套裝軟體 之中,並謹慎地選擇最適合你企業經營方式的模式(或軟體)。一旦你找到最 適合的軟體,要準備好調整你的營運程序來遵循軟體模式的要求。這可能是 個很難的抉擇,但是其他的替代方案可能更糟糕。

  33. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) The Internet accelerates communication The biggest change taking place in supply chain software today is the move to the Internet. The Internet does not, as was widely believed at the end of the last century, lead to a fundamentally different economy, nor does it alter the basic dynamics of supply chains. Physical goods still have to get from place to place, and the Internet doesn't alleviate the need to choreograph that movement as precisely as possible. What the Internet does dois provide a vastly improved communications medium for coordinating this movement of goods. Like the telegraph, the telephone, and the fax machine before it, the primary impact of the Internet is on the speed, and not the nature, of business processes. As with these earlier technologies, this impact is proving to be both deep and pervasive. Internet-Based Systems 網際網路加快了通訊速度 今日供應鏈軟體發生的最大改變就是朝網際網路(Internet)方向發展。網際 網路並未如上世紀末大家所普遍相信地,造成經濟上基本的改變,也末影 響供應鏈的基本動態關係。實體物品仍須在不同地點間運送,網際網路並 未減輕精確安排這些運送的需求。網際網路真正的功效是,提供了一個大 幅改善協調物品運送所需的通訊媒體。就像之前的電報、電話與傳真機, 網際網路的主要影響在於企業程序的速度,而非其本質。如同這些早期的 技術一般,網際網路的影響正逐漸被證實具深遠性與普及性。

  34. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) Two of the three flows now use the internet Boiled down to its essence, supply chain management consists of choreographing the flow of demand, supply, and cash. Two of these flows— demand and cash flow—can be moved entirely to the Internet (Figure 6.8). Orders consist entirely of textual data that is readily transmitted in electronic form, and payments can be made using electronic funds transfer (EFT). Moreover, all the supporting information that is passed up and down the chain—forecasts, plans, notices, and the like—can be shifted to the Internet as well. With the exception of actually shipping the goods, every function of the supply chain can be performed faster, cheaper, and more accurately using the Internet. The advantages are profound, and the Internet is rapidly becoming the standard medium for supply chain management. 三大流程中的兩個使用到網際網路 供應鏈管理的本質主要在於調節出最好的需求、供應與帳款之流程。兩大 流程---需求及帳款流程---可以完全移轉到網際網路上執行(見圖6.8)。訂 單包含完整的文數字資料(textual data),隨時可以轉換為電子格式,而付 款亦可透過電子化轉帳(electronic Funds transfer, EFT)來完成。更好的是, 所有在供應鏈中上下傳送之支援資訊,如預測、計畫、通知等,也都可以 轉移到網際網路上。除了物品真正的運送之外,供應鏈的每項功能都可以 透過網際網路更快速、更便宜、更準確地執行。這項優點貝深遠的意義, 而網際網路正快速成為供應鏈管理的標準通訊媒體。

  35. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) Two of the three flows now use the internet

  36. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) Some products can be shipped electronically For products that consist primarily of information, it is possible to move the flow of supply to the Internet as well, creating a fully electronic supply chain. Newsletters, books, designs, pictures, software, music, and other information products can be packaged as pure data and delivered almost instantly anywhere in the world. Not only is electronic distribution faster and cheaper for such products, it promises to change the very definition of what it means to deliver a product. For example, music can be delivered each time it is listened to rather than being stored by the consumer between uses, and software can be continuously updated by a vendor to reflect bug fixes and enhancements. These kinds of changes are already taking place in many information-based products. 有些產品可以透過電子化形式遞交 對於那些以資訊內容為主的產品,一樣有可能透過網際網路來完成供應流 程,創造出一個完全的電子化供應鏈(electronic supply chain)。通訊報 (newsletters)、書籍(books)、設計(designs)、照片(pictures)、軟體 (software)、音樂(music)和其他資訊產品都能被製成電子化資料,並快速 配送至全世界的各個角落。對於此類產品,電子化配銷(electronic distribution)不僅快速且便宜,它亦改變傳統上對於產品配銷的定義。例 如,音樂可於使用者收聽時及時送達,而不需預先儲存。同時,軟體亦可 由供應商不斷地進行更新。這些類型的改變已發生於許多以資訊為基礎的 產品身上。

  37. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) XML adds meaning to raw data To date, the use of the Internet to communicate information about the supply chainhas been hampered by a lack of standards for packaging data. It's relatively easy with today's technology to send an e-mail requesting information about a product, or to place an order by selecting that product on a Web site. But consider a company like Ingram Micro, which handles 60 million transactions a day. To move even a fraction of that traffic onto the Internet requires a lot more than human-readable messages and Web pages; it requires taking people out of the loop entirely and letting machines do all the work. The key technology for making that happen is now in place with the advent of XML, the extensible markup language.What XML does, in essence, is embed tags in data to identify each element of the data and give it meaning. XML附加更多意義於原始資料上 迄至今日,使用網際網路傳輸供應鏈資訊仍受制於資料封包標準之欠缺。 利用今日科技傳送電子郵件索取產品相關資訊,或是料上透過網際網路選 購產品已相當容易。但想像一下Ingram Micro這類每日需處理6,000萬筆 交易的公司。即使僅轉移一小部分交易到網際網路上,其要求將遠超出以 人來讀取訊息與網頁所可以負荷,它需要將人完全移開此工作環節,並由 機器來完成所有的工作。隨著延伸式標示語言(extensible markup language, XML)的出現,此種關鍵技術也已經發展出來。基本上,XML會將標籤 (tags)嵌入資料申,以辨識每個資料元素(data element)並給予其意義。

  38. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) XML can be read by machines Using XML means prices can be tagged as prices, discount terms As discount terms, and so on. XML can be used to make Web pages readable by machines, and it can be used in messages to allow machines to communicate directly with each other. For example, a price list with standard quantity discounts might be posted on the Web in XML form, whereas an order requesting a particular quantity might be sent as an XML-formatted message. In neither case is it necessary for human beings to be involved in the process. Because XML is easy to code and decode, applications software can easily handle tasks like preparing price lists, reading these lists to find the best quantity break, generating purchase orders, and so on. Given its simplicity and clarity, XML is rapidly becoming the lingua franca for data exchange over Internet. XML可以在機器上讀取 使用XML意味著價格可以被標示為價格,折扣條款可以被標示為折扣條款等 等。XML之使用可使機器辨讀網頁(web pages)內容,XML亦可使用於訊息 (messages)上使機器與機器間可以直接溝通。例如,列有標準數量折扣 (standard quantity discounts)的價目表可以XML格式發佈於網頁上;相同地, 要求一個特定數量的訂單也可以用XML格式化訊息(XML-formatted message) 來傳送。在上述兩種情況下,都不需人員參與在程序中。因為XML之編碼與 解碼非常容易,應用軟體可以很容易處理像準備價格表、讀取這些表找出最 佳數量折扣區間、發出採購訂單等等工作。基於其簡易與明確的特性,延伸 式標示語言(XML)正快速成為網際網路資料交換的通用語言(lingua franca)。

  39. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) XML supports complex data structures In addition to placing labels on individual pieces of information, XML allows data to be assembled into nested structures. For example, an order can be defined as a nested structure consisting of a header, a body, and a footer, as shown in Figure 6.9. Each of these elements can, in turn, be defined in terms of more basic elements, until the structure reaches the level of simple text. Moving in the opposite direction, orders can function as elements in still larger structures, such as contracts, and so on. XML支持複雜的資料結構 除了將辨識標籤貼於個別資訊元素上之功能外,XML亦允許資料組合成 巢狀結構(nested structures)。例如,在圖6.9中顯示,一份訂單可以被定 義為一個巢狀結構,包含一個表頭(a header)、一個主體(a body)與一個表 尾(a footer)。每一個元素(element)都可以再細分成更為基本的元素 (elements),直到該結構達到單純文字(simple text)的水準。往反向發展的 話,訂單可以作為一個更大結構下的元素,例如,一份契約等等。

  40. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) XML supports complex data structures

  41. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) XML-based standards are emerging Of course, two companies have to agree on all these structures before they can start sending orders back and forth, and that's where standards bodies come in. It's a slow process to achieve agreement even on a seemingly simple structure like an order, and in many industries two or more groups are proposing conflicting standards. Many companies have avoided the wait by just transferring the conventions of the electronic data interchange (EDI) standard over to the Internet. But EDI is overkill for the Internet, and despite years of standardization it still has at least a dozen distinct dialects. For truly universal communication, simpler formats are called for, and these are now beginning to emerge. 以XML為基礎的標準逐漸浮現 當然,兩家公司在開始來回傳送訂單之前,必須先就這些結構達成協議, 而這也正是標準組織(standards bodies)出現的原因。達成協議是一個緩慢 的程序,即使如訂單一般看似簡單的結構亦然,而且在很多產業當中,常 常會有兩個或更多的團體提出彼此互相衝突的標準。很多公司為避免等 待,就直接將電子資料交換的標準(electronic data interchange (EDI) standard)轉移到網際網路上使用。但是電子資料交換(EDI)為網際網路帶 來過度的負荷,因為儘管多年來標準化的努力,電子資料交換(EDI)仍然 存在至少12種不同的語法標準。要真正達成普遍性的溝通,較簡單的格式 是必要的,且這些簡單格式正在逐漸浮現當中。

  42. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) Web services allow applications to interact XML can be used today in Web pages and messages, but its greatest potential lies in allowing applications to interact over the Internet without any human involvement whatsoever. In order for this to happen, applications need to be able to "call" each other over the Internet, ask for particular services, and receive the results of their requests. That capability requires another layer of protocols on top of XML to handle such tasks as locating the appropriate application, discovering its capabilities, submitting a request in the required manner, and making sense of the response. The desire to link applications over the Internet is strong, and protocols have come into existence surprisingly quicklyThe essential capabilities, collectively known as Web services, are already operational in real systems, and their use will likely skyrocket over the next five to ten years. 網際服務使不同應用系統間可以互通 延伸式標示語言(XML)已使用於網頁與訊息上,但是其最大潛力仍在於它可 以讓應用軟體系統之間,不需透過任何人為的操作而在網際網路上互動。為 了使上述情況發生,應用系統間應該能夠透過網際網路彼此「呼叫」對方、 要求特定的服務,以及獲得它們所要求服務的結果。欲建構這項能力需要在 XML之上建立另一層的通訊協定,來處理各種工作,諸如找出最適合的應用 系統所在、發現它的能力、以要求之格式提出請求、提出可理解的回應等。 透過網際網路連結應用系統的需求非常強烈,而通訊協定的出現亦出乎意料 地迅速。這項必要的能力---網路服務(Web services)---已在實際應用系統中操 作,預估網路服務的使用量,在未來5到10年間將會激增。

  43. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) All three levels of management are changing The Internet is changing supply chain management at every level. To date, most of the changes have come at the operational level, with more and more transactions taking place electronically. At the planning level, companies are already exchanging forecasts and production plans over the Internet, and XML will soon become the common format for these exchanges. At the design level, the Internet is widely used to exchange files containing product designs, and the eventual conversion of those files to XML will gradually make the design process more interactive. 管理的三個層級都被改變了 網際網路正逐漸改變供應鏈管理的每一個層級。截至目前為止,大多數的 改變仍集中在作業層級,愈來愈多的交易是透過電子化傳輸完成。在規劃 層級方面,企業已在網際網路上交換預測與生產計畫,並且XML將會很 快成為這些電子資料交換的通用語言。在設計層級方面,網際網路廣泛被 使用於交換包含產品設計的電子檔案,並且這些檔案最終轉換成XML的 格式後,將逐漸使設計程序更具互動性。

  44. Internet-Based Systems(以網際網路為基礎的系統) The internet will transform supply chains As these changes take effect, supply chain management will be transformed in a profound way. As XML and Web services become widely adopted, all the routine interactions required to run a supply chain will shift to the Internet. Because programs will communicate directly with other programs, these transactions will occur below the level of human awareness and they will happen faster than a person could even follow. Freed from the mundane tasks of placing orders and updating schedules, the people who run supply chains will be able to operate at a much higher level, setting goals for the chain and analyzing its performance. In effect, running a supply chain will become as automatic as walking; instead of thinking about how to get every muscle to move in just the right way, you'll be free to focus on where you are going and how to get there. It's not quite the vision of the marathon runner clicking off six-minute miles, but it's a long way from Frankenstein's monster struggling down the village lane. 網際網路將改造供應鏈 當這些改變逐漸產生效果後,供應鏈管理將被這些影響深遠的方式所改造。 當XML與網路服務廣泛地被採用後,所有供應鏈的例行性交易都將轉移至網 際網路。因為系統可以直接與其他系統溝通,這些交易將在人類不知不覺的 情況下發生,它們進行的速度甚至是人類所無法跟得上的。從下訂單與更新 排程等繁瑣工作申獲得釋放後,供應鏈管理主管將可以在更高層次上經營其 供應鏈,設定供應鏈的目標並分析它的績效。效果上,管理供應鏈將與走路 一般,你不需要思考應如何將四肢力氣協調好並往正確方向移動,你將可更 自由地將焦點集中於尋找正確的發展方向與合適的達成方法上。這並不像馬 拉松賽跑選手的願景,希望持續跑著每英哩6分鐘的速度,而比較像 Frankenstein博士筆下的怪物爬在村莊小徑上那條非常長遠的道路。

  45. Summary There's a lot of software out there for supply chains, and assembling the best system for your chain is no small task. The most important decision you'll make is the choice of design and planning systems, and acquiring the optimizing capabilities of APS—either as part of an ERP package or separately—should be a high priority. Whether you need systems to manage warehouses and transportation systems depends entirely on your chain, but you should definitely look into the new visibility and event management packages. Be cautious about customer and supplier relationship systems, however, as they take a rather provincial view of the supply chain, and they seem to be particularly prone to the implicit-model problem. Finally, make sure that any systems you buy are ready to operate over the Internet, using as many of the advanced services as possible. Otherwise, you are likely to find your systems crawling rather than running against the competition. 現在市面上有很多供應鏈軟體(Supply chains software)可供我們挑選,但是 為自己的供應鏈組裝一套最佳系統不是一件簡單的工作。你所需做的最重 要決策就是設計與規劃系統(design and planning systems)的選擇,並取得 進階規劃與排程系統(APS)的最佳化能力---它不是企業資源規劃(ERP)套裝 軟體的一部分就是單獨的軟體。你是否需要倉庫與運輸管理系統完全取決 於你的供應鏈之需求,不過你絕對應該要研究一下較新的能見度(visibility) 與事件管理(event management)套裝軟體。然而,對於顧客關係(customer relationships)與供應商關係(supplier relationships)的軟體系統則需要特別 小心,因為這些軟體採用較偏狹的供應鏈觀點,而且似乎特別具有內建模 式的問題。最後,確認你所購買的任何系統都能在網際網路上順利操作, 採用愈多先進服務的系統愈好。否則,你將會發現你的系統將是緩步爬行 而非快步奔跑地與對手競爭。

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