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High T and r QCD in the QCD Lab Era. The QCD laboratory era Overview Fundamental questions Opportunities with heavy ion collisions Key experimental probes and their status Hard probes Electromagnetic radiation Roadmap towards the QCD Lab era Burning open questions as of today

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high t and r qcd in the qcd lab era

High T and r QCD in the QCD Lab Era

  • The QCD laboratory era
    • Overview
    • Fundamental questions
    • Opportunities with heavy ion collisions
  • Key experimental probes and their status
    • Hard probes
    • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Roadmap towards the QCD Lab era
    • Burning open questions as of today
    • Detector and accelerator upgrades
  • Well into the QCD lab and the LHC era
    • Jet tomography
    • Quarkonium
    • Low energy program
  • RHIC beyond PHENIX and STAR upgrades
fundamental questions in qcd
Fundamental Questions in QCD

2007 2012

QCD Laboratory at BNL

Axel Drees

long term timeline of heavy ion facilities
Long Term Timeline of Heavy Ion Facilities

2009

2012

2015

2006

QCD Laboratory at BNL

RHIC

PHENIX & STAR upgrades

electron cooling “RHIC II”

electron injector/ring “e RHIC”

LHC

RHIC II and STAR/PHENIX upgrades will flourish in QCD Lab era!

FAIR

Phase III: Heavy ion physics

Axel Drees

exploring the phase diagram of qcd
Quark Matter: Many new phases of matter

Asymptotically free quarks & gluons

Strongly coupled plasma

Superconductors, CFL ….

Experimental access to “high” T and moderate r region: heavy ion collisions

Pioneered at SPS and AGS

Ongoing program at RHIC

Study high T and r QCD in the Laboratory

Exploring the Phase Diagram of QCD

T

Quark Matter

Mostly uncharted territory

sQGP

TC~170 MeV

Hadron

Resonance Gas

Overwhelming evidence:

Strongly coupled quark matter

produced at RHIC

temperature

Nuclear

Matter

baryon chemical potential

1200-1700 MeV

940 MeV

mB

Axel Drees

quark matter produced at rhic

V2

PHENIX

Huovinen et al

Pt GeV/c

Quark Matter Produced at RHIC

III. Jet Quenching

I. Transverse Energy

Bjorken estimate: t0~ 0.3 fm

PHENIX

130 GeV

dNg/dy ~ 1100

central 2%

 ~ 10-20 GeV/fm3

II. Hydrodynamics

Initial conditions:

therm ~ 0.6 -1.0 fm/c

~15-25 GeV/fm3

Heavy ion collisions provide

the laboratory to study high T QCD!

Axel Drees

fundamental questions

T

Quark Matter

TC~170 MeV

SIS

Hadron

Resonance Gas

temperature

Nuclear

Matter

baryon chemical potential

1200-1700 MeV

940 MeV

mB

Fundamental Questions

which may find experimental answers using heavy ion collisions!

  • Exploring the QCD phase diagram:
    • What is the nature of a relativistic quantum fluid?
    • What are the relevant degrees of freedom?
    • Is there a critical point?
    • Is there asymptotically free quark matter?
  • Physics at the phase transition:
    • Why are quarks confined in hadrons?
    • Why are hadrons massive and what is the relation to chiral symmetry breaking?

Axel Drees

fundamental questions ii
Fundamental Questions (II)

Related to time evolution of the collision!

  • Initial state and entropy generation:
    • What is the low x cold nuclear matter phase?
    • How and why does matter thermalize so fast?

Axel Drees

heavy ion collisions provide the laboratory

LHC/CERN

T

Quark Matter

RHIC/BNL

FAIR/GSI

TC~170 MeV

thermal freeze out

chemical freeze out

SIS

Hadron

Resonance Gas

temperature

Nuclear

Matter

baryon chemical potential

1200-1700 MeV

940 MeV

mB

Heavy Ion Collisions Provide the Laboratory

Different accelerators probe different regions of the phase diagram!

  • Exploring the QCD phase diagram:
    • Is there asymptotically free quark matter?
    • What is the nature of a relativistic quantum fluid? What are the relevant degrees of freedom?
    • Is there a critical point?
  • Physics at the phase transition:
    • Why are quarks confined in hadrons?
    • Why are hadrons massive and what is the relation to chiral symmetry breaking?

Axel Drees

slide9

Heavy Ion Collisions Provide the Laboratory

Related to time evolution of the collision!

  • Initial state and entropy generation:
    • How and why does matter thermalize so fast?
    • What is the low x cold nuclear matter phase?

eRHIC

RHIC

LHC

FAIR

Axel Drees

comparison of heavy ion facilities
Comparison of Heavy Ion Facilities

Initial conditions

  • FAIR: cold but dense baryon

rich matter

    • fixed target p to U
    • sNN ~ 1-8 GeV U+U
    • Intensity ~ 2 109/s  ~10 MHz
    • ~ 20 weeks/year
  • RHIC: dense quark matter to

hot quark matter

    • Collider p+p, d+A and A+A
    • sNN ~ 5 – 200 GeV U+U
    • Luminosity ~ 8 1027 /cm2s  ~50 kHz
    • ~ 15 weeks/year
  • LHC: hot quark matter
    • Collider p+p and A+A
    • Energy ~ 5500 GeV Pb+Pb
    • Luminosity ~ 1027 /cm2s  ~5 kHz
    • ~ 4 week/year

FAIR  TC

LHC 3-4 TC

RHIC  2 TC

RHIC is unique and at “sweet spot”

Complementary programs with large overlap:

High T: LHC  adds new high energy probes

 test prediction based on RHIC data

High r: FAIR  adds probes with ultra low cross section

Axel Drees

key experimental probes of quark matter
Key Experimental Probes of Quark Matter
  • Rutherford experiment a atom discovery of nucleus

SLAC electron scattering e  proton discovery of quarks

QGP

penetrating beam

(jets or heavy particles)

absorption or scattering pattern

Nature provides penetrating beams or “hard probes”

and the QGP in A-A collisions

  • Penetrating beams created by parton scattering before QGP is formed
    • High transverse momentum particles  jets
    • Heavy particles  open and hidden charm or bottom
    • Calibrated probes calculable in pQCD
  • Probe QGP created in A-A collisions as transient state after ~ 1 fm

Axel Drees

hard probes light quark gluon jets

jet

jet

Central Au-Au

PHENIX preliminary

Hard Probes: Light quark/gluon jets
  • Status
    • Calibrated probe
    • Strong medium effect
      • Jet quenching
      • Reaction of medium to probe (Mach cones, recombination, etc. )
    • Matter is very opaque
      • Significant surface bias
      • Limited sensitivity to energy loss mechanism

hydro

vacuum fragmentation

reaction of medium

Axel Drees

hard probes open heavy flavor

N. Armesto et al, nucl-ex/0511257

STAR Preliminary

Hard Probes: Open Heavy Flavor
  • Status
    • Calibrated probe?
      • Charm follows binary scaling
      • pQCD under predicts cross section by factor 2-5
    • Strong medium effects
      • Significant charm suppression
      • Significant charm v2
      • Little room for bottom production
    • Limited agreement with energy loss calculations

Axel Drees

hard probes quarkonium
Hard Probes: Quarkonium
  • Status
    • J/y production is suppressed
      • Similar at RHIC and SPS
      • Consistent with consecutive melting of c and y’
      • Consistent with melting J/y followed by regeneration
    • Recent Lattice QCD developments
      • Quarkonium states do not melt at TC

Karsch, Kharzeev, Satz,

hep-ph/0512239

Axel Drees

key experimental probes of quark matter ii

e-

g*

g

e+

e-

p

r*

g

g*

e+

p

g

q

e-

q

g

q

p

p

q

e+

r

g

Key Experimental Probes of Quark Matter (II)

real or virtual photons (lepton pairs)

hadron gas:

photons low mass lepton pairs

QGP:

photons medium mass

  • Electromagnetic radiation:
    • No strong final state interaction
    • Carry information from time of emission to detectors
      • Thermal photons and dileptons sensitive to highest temperature of plasma
      • Dileptons sensitive to medium modifications of meson in mixed/hardon phase
      • (only known potential handle on chiral symmetry restoration!)

Axel Drees

electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Status
    • First indication of thermal radiation at RHIC
    • Strong modification of meson properties
      • Precision data from NA60
      • Emerging data from RHIC
    • Theoretical link to chiral symmetry restoration remains unclear

NA60

Axel Drees

burning open issues
“Burning” Open Issues:
  • Jets and heavy quarks
    • Which observables are sensitive to details of energy loss mechanism?
    • How important is collisional energy loss?
    • Do we understand relation between energy loss and energy density?
    • Where are the B-mesons?
    • Which probes are sensitive to the medium and what do they tell us?
  • Quarkonium
    • Is the J/y screened or not?
    • Can we really extract screening length from data?
  • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Can we measure the initial temperature?
    • Is there a quantitative link from dileptons to chiral symmetry resoration?

Answers will come from QCD laboratory and LHC

Axel Drees

midterm strategy for rhic facility
Midterm Strategy for RHIC Facility

Key measurements require upgrades of detectors and/or RHIC luminosity

  • Detectors:
    • Particle identification  reaction of medium to eloss, recombination
    • Displaced vertex detection  open charm and bottom
    • Increased rate and acceptance  Jet tomography, quarkonium, heavy flavors
    • Dalitz rejection  e+e- pair continuum
    • Forward detectors  low x, CGC
  • Accelerator:
    • EBIS  Systems up to U+U
    • Electron cooling  increased luminosity

Axel Drees

phenix detector upgrades at a glance
PHENIX Detector Upgrades at a Glance
  • Central arms:
    • Electron and Photon measurements
      • Electromagnetic calorimeter
      • Precision momentum determination
    • Hadron identification
  • Muon arms:
    • Muon
      • Identification
      • Momentum determination
    • Dalitz/conversion rejection(HBD)
    • Precision vertex tracking (VTX)

PID (k,p,p) to 10 GeV (Aerogel/TOF)

    • High rate trigger (m trigger)
    • Precision vertex tracking (FVTX)
  • Electron and photon measurements
    • Muon arm acceptance (NCC)
    • Very forward (MPC)

Axel Drees

slide20

NCC

NCC

HBD

MPC

MPC

VTX & FVTX

Future PHENIX Acceptance for Hard Probes

EMCAL

0 f coverage 2p

EMCAL

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 rapidity

(i) p0 and direct g with combination of all electromagnetic calorimeters

(ii) heavy flavor with precision vertex tracking with silicon detectors

combine (i)&(ii) for jet tomography with g-jet

(iii) low mass dilepton measurments with HBD + PHENIX central arms

Axel Drees

star upgrades

Full Barrel Time-of-Flight system

Forward Meson Spectrometer

Forward triple-GEM EEMC tracker

STAR Upgrades

DAQ and TPC-FEE upgrade

Integrated Tracking Upgrade

Forward silicon tracker

HFT pixel detector

Barrel silicon tracker

Axel Drees

rhic upgrades overview
RHIC Upgrades Overview

X upgrade critical for success

O upgrade significantly enhancements program

Axel Drees

which measurements are unique at rhic
Which Measurements are Unique at RHIC?
  • General comparison to LHC
    • LHC and RHIC (and FAIR) are complementary
    • They address different regimes (CGC vs sQGP vs hadronic matter)
    • Experimental issues: “Signals” at RHIC overwhelmed by “backgrounds” at LHC
  • Measurement specific (compared to LHC)
    • Charm measurements: favorable at RHIC
      • Charm is a “light quark” at LHC, no longer a penetrating probe
      • Abundant thermal production of charm
      • Large contribution from jet fragmentation and bottom decay
      • Bottom may assume role of charm at LHC
    • Quarkonium spectroscopy: J/, ’ , c easier to interpreter at RHIC
      • Large background from bottom decays and thermal production at LHC
      • Upsilon spectroscopy can only be done at LHC
    • Low mass dileptons: challenging at LHC
      • Huge irreducible background from charm production at LHC
    • Jet tomography: measurements and capabilities complementary
      • RHIC: large calorimeter and tracking coverage with PID in few GeV range
      • Extended pT range at LHC

Axel Drees

slide24

Quarkonium and Open Heavy Flavor

* large background

** states maybe not resolved

*** min. bias trigger

**** pt > 3 GeV

Will be statistics limited at RHIC and LHC!

Compiled by T.Frawley

Potential improvements with dedicated experiment

4p acceptance J/Y, Y’ 10x

 2-10x

background rejection cc ????

Note: for B, D increase by factor 10 extends pT by ~3-4 GeV

  • LHC relative to RHIC
    • Luminosity ~ 10%
    • Running time ~ 25%
    • Cross section ~ 10-50x
  • ~ similar yields!

There is room for improvement if needed!

Axel Drees

comments on high p t capabilities
Comments on High pT Capabilities
  • LHC
    • Orders of magnitude larger cross sections
    • ~3 times larger pT range
  • RHIC with current detectors (+ upgrades)
    • Sufficient pT reach
    • Sufficient PID for associated particles
    • What is needed is integrated luminosity!

Region of interest for associated particles

up to pT ~ 5 GeV

Axel Drees

estimates for g jet tomography
Estimates for g-jet Tomography
  • Rapidly falling cross section with rapidity:
    • Assume ~ 1000 events required for statistical g-jet correlation
    • 40x design luminosity

Inclusive direct g today

  • y max g-pT (GeV)
  • 0 23
  • 1 21
  • 2 15
  • 3 8

Detector + luminosity

upgrades

Need to extend pT range not obvious!

Hadron pid ~ 4 GeV seems sufficient!

Axel Drees

low energy running at rhic

RHIC Heavy Ion Collisions

Expected whole vertex minbias event rate [Hz]

T. Roser, T. Satogata

Low Energy Running at RHIC
  • Physics goals:
    • Search for critical point  bulk hadron production and fluctuations
      • Requires moderate luminosity
      • can maybe be done in next years
    • Chiral symmetry restoration  dilepton production
      • Requires highest possible luminosity, i.e. electron cooling
  • Luminosity estimate with electron cooling
    • Assume 4 weeks of physics each, 25% recorded luminosity and sufficient triggers
      • 20 GeV  109 events
      • 2 GeV  107 events
      • CERES best run ~ 4x107 events
      • NA60 In+In ~ 1010 sampled events

Increase by factor 100

with electron cooling

Very strong low energy dilepton program possible at RHIC

Axel Drees

beyond phenix and star upgrades
Beyond PHENIX and STAR upgrades?
  • Do we need (a) new heavy ion experiment(s) at RHIC?
    • Likely, if it makes sense to continue program beyond 2020
      • Aged mostly 25 year old detectors
      • Capabilities and room for upgrades most likely exhausted
      • Delivered luminosity leaves room for improvement
    • Nature of new experiments unclear!
      • Specialized experiments
      • 4p multipurpose detector …. “Die Eierlegendewollmilchsau”
  • Key to future planning:
    • First results from RHIC upgrades
      • Detailed jet tomography, jet-jet and g-jet
      • Heavy flavor (c- and b-production)
      • Quarkonium measurments (J/, ’ , )
      • Electromagnetic radiation (e+e- pair continuum)
      • Status of low energy program
    • Quantitative tests at LHC of models that describe RHIC data
      • Validity of saturation picture
      • Does ideal hydrodynamics really work
      • Scaling of parton energy loss
      • Color screening and recombination

New insights and short comings or failures of RHIC

detectors will guide planning on time scale 2010-12

Axel Drees