Imperialism and Post Colonialism in Africa. Words to Know!. Artificial Political Borders European Partitioning Berlin Conference Nigeria Kenya South Africa Federal Republic. Graphic Organizer. Colonialism. What is Colonialism?.
Colonialism is defined as the occupation and control of one nation by another. Do you know of any countries around the world, either in or outside of Africa, which have been colonized at some point in their history? Given an example.
European nations colonized Africa from the late 19th century (WHEN?)until the middle to later 20th century WHEN?.
The 19th century in Europe was a time of industrialization . What does industrialization mean? Factories in Europe needed raw materials to manufacture products. As a result, Europeans sought both a source of raw materials, as well as, a market for manufactured goods in Africa.
So…with that information…why do you believe European nation colonized Africa?
Punishing “Lazy” Workers
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
Politics in Europe also led to the colonization of Africa. Nationalism-a strong of identification with and pride in one's nation-resulted in competition between European nations. This competition often resulted in wars between nations. One of the causes of the Scramble for Africa, (1885-1910) which resulted in the colonization of all of Africa in just twenty-five years, was the competition between European nations to control as much of Africa as possible to gain economic and political power. No major nation wanted to be without colonies. The competition was particularly strong between Britain, France, and Germany, the strongest European nation-states in the late 19th century.
Activity-In your own words, what was the Scramble for Africa? Why was it so important and who particpated?
Artificial Political Borders
Artificial Political Borders
Struggle for Independence
National unity is essential for the success of any country. For this goal to be met, citizens have to develop a stronger loyalty and identity to the nation than they do to an ethnic group.
Sovereignty- a fancy term for authority and power to insure security.
Basic human services: education, health-care, housing and adequate employment opportunities.
What advice would you have given African governments in 1960 on how they should deal with these important issues? What type of policies, programs, and institutions should have been developed to address these very important issues?
Others chose a parliamentary system. In a parliamentary system, the national assembly (what in the U.S. is the Congress) selects the executive cabinet from among the members of the national assembly. The head of government in this system is called a Prime Minister. African countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone inherited a parliamentary system.
The strains on the political system in the early years of independence provided an environment in which corruptionbecame widely practiced in some African countries. A few government officials used their government position to benefit themselves and members of their family. Military leaders often used the pretext of widespread corruption to justify their taking power.
In spite of popular opposition to military rule, between 1960 and 1985 there were 131 attempted coups in Africa, of which 60 were successful! And three countries have had six successful military coups ! Indeed, out of 54 independent African countries, only six countries have not experienced an attempted or successful coup since they became independent .
The Cold War also brought problems to the continent of Africa. The United States and the Soviet Union used the counties in Africa as pawns in a global chess game of domination, wealth, and power.
As economies deteriorated, social strains increased and civil wars and refugees became the faces of Africa. But, in the last decades of the century, South Africa achieved the miracle of majority rule under Nelson Mandela, while in Uganda YoweriMuseveni fought the first post-independence liberation war and became the symbol of a new political generation of leadership. In Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda - intellectuals who had been through the fire of liberation struggles and set out to build societies which could transcend both the heavy hand of outsiders, and the scourge of ethnic politics. The 1994 genocide in Rwanda, in which a million Tutsis were killed by their erstwhile friends and neighbors from the majority Hutu population, acted as a terrible warning of what ethnic politics had in store if Africa's new leaders were to fail.