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What are Words Worth? Vocabulary Instruction Worth Its Weight in Gold. Presented by District Literacy Leadership Team. 4 Components of an Effective Vocabulary Program. Wide and extensive reading to expand word knowledge,

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what are words worth vocabulary instruction worth its weight in gold
What are Words Worth?Vocabulary Instruction Worth Its Weight in Gold

Presented by District Literacy Leadership Team

4 components of an effective vocabulary program
4 Components of an Effective Vocabulary Program
  • Wide and extensive reading to expand word knowledge,
  • Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words,
  • Instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and
  • Word consciousness and word play activities to motivate and enhance learning.

Michael Graves, 2000

how do students build their vocabulary
How do students build their vocabulary?
  • Wide and Extensive Reading
  • Morphemic Analysis (word parts)
  • Contextual Analysis
  • Dictionary Use
  • Cognate Analysis (ELL)

(chocolatte/chocolate)

explicit vocabulary instruction
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary instruction is embedded within the instructional routine for reading and follows a before, during and after reading format.

before reading
Before Reading

Instruction

  • Archer’s Instructional Routine for Vocabulary
  • Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary-Steps 1-3
  • Beck’s Questioning Strategies

Activities

  • Frayer Model
  • Semantic Mapping
  • Word and Concept Sorts
during reading
During Reading

Instruction

  • Model strategy use
  • Monitor/support student strategy use
  • Providing affirmative and corrective feedback

Activities

  • Word Analysis
  • Context Clues
  • Vocabulary Tree Map
  • Dictionary
after reading
After Reading

Instruction

  • Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary-Steps 4-6
  • Beck’s Questioning Strategies

Activities

  • Frayer Model
  • Semantic Mapping
  • Word and Concept Sorts
reading aloud
Reading Aloud
  • Students retain more vocabulary when the teacher explains critical vocabulary terms in context during the reading.
  • Reading a book several times leads to more word learning than reading several books once each.
reading aloud1
Reading Aloud

"The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children."

Becoming a Nation of Readers (1985)

vocabulary instruction
Vocabulary Instruction

Direct teaching of vocabulary can help improve comprehension when we follow these guidelines (Cooper, 1993):

  • A few critical words are taught.
  • The words are taught in a meaningful context. (including nonlinguistic representations)
  • Students relate the new words to their background knowledge.
  • Students are exposed to the words multiple times.
take a look
TAKE A LOOK

Vocabulary Strategies

background knowledge
Background Knowledge

The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge is explicit in research.

(Nagy & Herman, 1984; Marzano, 2004; Hart & Risley, 1995)

word sorts
Word Sorts

temperature

barometer

hurricanes

meteorologist

cold front

word sorts1
Word Sorts

temperature

hurricanes

barometer

meteorologist

cold front

  • Provide students with a set of vocabulary word cards (related to a specific concept or topic).
  • Work in groups to sort the words into categories.
  • Encourage students to find more than one category for the vocabulary words.
  • Students then discuss with teacher & peers their rationale for categorizing words.
concept circles assessment westward movement
Concept Circles Assessment: Westward Movement

Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles.

hunting

food

trail

terrain

learning

disease

hardship

wagon

Traveling west had many hardships. One of the many hardships were diseases that the people had without medical help. Wagons would need to hold many delicacies. For instance, food you’d need to eat and live on were carried in them. The trails could have bad terrain, or could be all flat. Hunting was important and learning how to hunt for buffalo, elk, deer, and birds was learned while on the trail and served as good food for all.

concept circles assessment circulatory system
Concept Circles Assessment: Circulatory System

Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles. (Which word does NOT belong?)

carbon dioxide

Large intestines

Blood

Heart

Oxygen

Veins

Salivary Glands

Arteries

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

slide21

Schwartz & Raphael, 1985

What is it?

What is it like?

To move regularly from one region to another

moving around

relocating

migrate

traveling

people working for seasonal jobs

birds

Nomads

What are some examples?

slide22

Word Map

What is it like?

What is it?

Fence

What are some examples?

slide23

Word Map

What is it like?

What is it?

Culture

What are some examples?

slide24

Word Map

What is it like?

What is it?

Disease

What are some examples?

frayer diagram 1
Frayer Diagram 1

Definition

Characteristics

An extreme state of agitation.

Stress, anxiety, tension, hostility,

Tears, physical symptoms

SWIVET

First, last week of school.

Sitting on the porch reading

Bubble bath

Unexpected guests for dinner

Lounging by the pool

Four projects due

Examples

Non-Examples

frayer diagram
Frayer Diagram

Definition

Characteristics

What is a Noun?

Examples

Non-Examples

fryer model
Fryer Model

Visual Representation

Term

sphere

Personal Association

Definition

My ball is the shape of a sphere.

A round 3-D shape

sphere

slide29

Frayer Model(Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)

Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel.

Characteristics

Definition

  • Group
  • Like animals
  • Clustered

a congregation of wild animals

herd

Examples

Non-Examples

slide30

Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)

Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel.

Definition

Characteristics

  • 2 is the only even prime number
  • 0 and 1 are not prime
        • Every whole number can be written as a product of primes

A whole number with exactly two divisors (factors)

Prime

Examples

Non-Examples

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, . . .

1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10. . .

contextual redefinition
Contextual Redefinition

Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of each of the following words. The words included here are found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that some words which look familiar will probably have new meanings in this context.

vvwa verbal visual word association readence bean baldwin 2001
VVWA (Verbal & Visual Word Association) Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, 2001

Term

Visual Representation

humidity

Personal Association

Definition

a degree of wetness especially of the atmosphere

vocabulary notebooks
Vocabulary Notebooks
  • Students keep a log or journal to record what they are learning
  • Teacher provides a concept or word.
  • Students write quickly & spontaneously (free write/quick write) everything they know about the word.
  • Peer and/or teacher response.
concept circles
Concept Circles

Which word does not belong?

Rectangle

Hexagon

Cone

Trapezoid

Why? ___________________________________________________

concept circles1
Concept Circles

Which word does not belong?

Cuba

Hawaii

England

Japan

Why? ___________________________________________________

slide42

racism

stereotyping

Church

bombing

violence

Concept: Civil Rights Movement

slide43

Migrant

Dust Bowl

Hobo

Hoovervilles

Concept: The Depression

4 2 1 summarizer tpr
4-2-1 summarizer (TPR)

Four

Two

One

Rogers, et.al (1999). Motivation and Learning. . .

vocabulary development

Vocabulary Development

Concept Circles

Concept Sorts

Presented by The District Literacy Team

November 28, 2012

vocabulary development1
Vocabulary Development

“In our teaching, how can we ensure that there is sufficient intensity and frequency of exposure for concept and vocabulary learning?”

Bear, D. Concept Sorts and Vocabulary Learning. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from http://www.vocablog-plc.blogspot.com

concept circles and concept sorts strategies before and after
Concept Circles and Concept Sorts: Strategies Before and After

Organize ideas +Think critically about relationships between words + Interact and discuss vocabulary =Deeper conceptual understanding of vocabulary and concepts

what are concept circles
What are Concept Circles?
  • Concept Circles are circles with words placed in sections of the circle.
  • Concept Circles are used for a variety of instructional and assessment purposes.
how do concept circles work
How Do Concept Circles Work?
  • Gives students the opportunity to categorize words and justify the connections between and among words.
  • Each section of the circle contains a word or phrase that you would like your students to think, talk, and or write about.
concept circles2
Concept Circles
  • Put words or phrases in each section of the circle and ask students to write about the connections they see between the words and phrases.
  • Why are these words in a Concept Circle together?
why are these words in a concept circle together
Why are these words in a concept circle together?

road signs

Romance novel

Medicine

dosage

Note passed

in class

concept circles3
Concept Circles
  • Place vocabulary words in three of the sections of the circle.
  • Students add a word in the fourth section.
  • Students write why they chose that word and how the words in the circle form a concept.
concept circles4
Concept Circles

transportation

portfolio

export

concept circles5
Concept Circles
  • Students choose four vocabulary words from their study of a topic or a text. These can be teacher- or student-generated lists of words.
  • Students use those four words to write about what they have learned about the topic.
concept circles7
Concept Circles
  • Students shade either the words that go together or the word that doesn’t fit with the others.
  • Students talk or write about which attributes caused a word to be included or excluded.
when and why would i use this strategy
When and Why would I use this strategy?
  • Concept circles are used when you want students to participate in conceptual thinking about content vocabulary.
    • Focus students’ discussions
    • Review word meanings and word families
    • Provide support for students’ writing
  • Assessment tool – use words to write a focused summary of what has been learned in a unit of study.
concept sorts categories labels
Concept Sorts: Categories & Labels
  • Students organize information: categorize and label words based on common attributes
  • Vocabulary words are selected because they are critical to students’ comprehension of content or text.
how do concept sorts work
How do concept sorts work?
  • Student receive a copy of the key concepts and critical vocabulary
  • Teacher reads each of the terms aloud as students follow to match pronunciation to print.
  • Students ask questions
  • Teachers remind them of places where they can find additional information about words (texts, websites, etc.)
how do concept sorts work1
How do concept sorts work?
  • Assign student groups.
  • Groups discuss words and decide on how to categorize the word into logical groups
  • Give each category a label
  • Ask students to justify their word groups and labels
concept sorts when and why
Concept Sorts: When and Why?
  • Concept sorts require students to access and gain background knowledge related to the topic based on encountering the technical vocabulary related to the topic.
  • By discussing and grouping the words into categories, students are creating attributes of the words in relation to each other and the topic being studied.
  • In labeling the words, students create a structure for remembering the words and the information they have gathered related to the words.
slide65

And a Quote from Stahl …

  • Increasing the amount of reading that children did outside of school, using a “Book Flood” approach, did significantly improve children’s vocabulary. In a Book Flood, the school sends books home, provides incentives for reading, and so on in order to dramatically increase the amount of reading that children do.