Ch 15 Learning About Hindu Beliefs. Introduction The Origins of Hinduism Hinduism and the Caste System Hindu Beliefs About Brahman Hindu Beliefs About Deities Hindu Beliefs About Dharma Hindu Beliefs About Karma Hindu Beliefs About Samsara Summary.
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Ch 15 Learning About Hindu Beliefs • Introduction • The Origins of Hinduism • Hinduism and the Caste System • Hindu Beliefs About Brahman • Hindu Beliefs About Deities • Hindu Beliefs About Dharma • Hindu Beliefs About Karma • Hindu Beliefs About Samsara • Summary
Review Objectives: Describe what daily life may have been like in the Indus-Sarasvati region. Explain why Mohenjodaro is an important archeological site. Current Objectives: Identify and describe the major traditions customs, and beliefs of Hinduism. Describe five basic Hindu beliefs Identify ways that five basic Hindu beliefs affect life in India. December 16 • Complete pg 5-6 in Unit 3 packet • Complete #5 from Ancient India Vocabulary • Highlight/underline any vocabulary words (from 1-5) found on pgs 3-6 in Unit 3 packet • Chapter 15: Read sections 15.2 and 15.3 on pgs. 144-145. Fill in the note sheet. • Work on CRES study guide
Introduction • India's First Major Religion • Hinduism • How Hinduism Shaped Indian Life • Worship • Jobs • Food • Art and Literature • Determines status • Basic Beliefs • Dharma • Law, obligation, and duty • Perform duties and live as one should • Sacred Texts • Ramayana • Tells about life in ancient India • Offers models in dharma • Central figure • Rama • Loving son • Loving husband • responsible ruler
The Origins of Hinduism • Development • very old • began before recorded history • No single founder • developed slowly • Aryans • 2000 BCE Aryans migrated into northern India • Brought elements that later became Hinduism • Original Settlers • Ritual bathing • Lighting sacred (holy) fires • Worshipping certain deities
The Origins of Hinduism • Vedism • Vedas • Means "knowledge" in Sanskrit • Collection of sacred texts (verses, hymns, prayers, and teachings) • Composed in Sanskrit • Taught orally for hundreds of years • Brahmins • Class of priests and religious scholars • Interpreted the Vedas and correctly performed the rituals • Became dominant class in India • Later Vedism called Brahmanism • Modern-day Hinduism • Very complex • Many beliefs, many forms of worship, many deities exist side by side • Share certain beliefs • Vedas remain sacred
Hinduism and the Caste System • Brahmanism taught that a well-organized society was divided into social classes • Brahmins - priests and religious scholars • Kshatriyas - rulers and warriors • Vaishyas - herders and merchants • Shudras - servants • Each class had its own duties • Untouchables • 5th class that developed over time • people whose jobs or ways of life involved activities considered lowly or "dirty" • Had to live in their own neighborhoods • Could not enter many temples or attend schools • Other Hindus avoided touching or looking at them • Could not change caste • Born into a caste • Married into same caste
Hindu Beliefs About Brahman • Brahman • Supreme power or divine force • Greater than all other deities • Exists forever • Everything in the world is part of Brahman • Human souls are connected to Brahman • Human soul called atman • Compared to a drop of water as part of the ocean • Other deities are various forms of Brahman • Time goes in a circle • Brahman is constantly creating, destroying, and re-creating the universe • Cycle never ends • Connecting with deities • Began to build great temples in 6th century CE • Exact instructions about where and how to build temples • Doors always face east toward the rising sun • Covered with beautiful carvings and sculptures • Usually contain a tower and a small shrine • Hindus visit to express their love • Sit quietly and meditate • Give thanks, make requests, and take part in rituals
Hindu Beliefs About Deities • Many deities • All deities are different faces of Brahman • Each deity represents a power or quality of Brahman • Most popular and powerful deity • Indra • Deity of thunder • Fiercely warlike • Description • driving a blazing gold chariot across the sky • Riding a white elephant • Used lightning bolts as weapons • Most important deities • Brahman • Creator • Vishnu • Preserver • Blue skin and six arms • Shiva • Destroyer • Pictured as having three eyes • Able to see events from a distance • Devi • Female powers of the universe
Hindu Beliefs About Deities Stories • Describe heroic deities battling evil • Ramayana • Rama's fierce battle with Ravana, a demon • Presents basic beliefs in an entertaining way • Inspire Hindu holidays and festivals • Hindu New Year • Celebrated during Divali festival • Divali means "row of lamps" • Lamps symbols of good winning over evil
Hindu Beliefs About Dharma • Meaning • Stands for law, obligation, and duty • Perform one's duties and live as one should • Social class Dharma • Called varna dharma • duties involved a certain type of work • Society would be in harmony • Common dharma • Common set of values • marriage, sharing food with others, and caring for one's soul
Hindu Beliefs About Karma • Explains the importance of living according to dharma • Law of karma governs what happens to people's souls after death • Belief in a soul having many lives • Made up of all the good and evil that a person done in past lives • Move to higher class or animal world • Means that the universe is just or fair • Souls rewarded or punished • Explained people's status in society • Caste system criticized • Hindu teachers have come to teach equal treatment • Mahatma Gandhi • Today, Indian law protects rights of all people
Hindu Beliefs About Samsara Cycle of birth, death, and rebirth - Known as reincarnation • Ends when the soul escapes the cycle of rebirth • Accomplished through balancing their karma with good actions • Following their dharma by behaving correctly and performing their social duties • Worship Brahman including deities that represent different aspects of Bahaman • Hindu monks • Use a number of techniques to focus on Brahman • meditate • perform breathing exercises • recite prayers • sing sacred songspractice yoga • type of meditation • combines special body positions with deep, slow breathing • Known as sannyasins devote entire life to attaining divine enlightenment • Strive for direct, personal connections with Brahman • Going on holy journeys called pilgrimages • Difficulty of journey would cleanse them of sin • Faithful Hindus still make pilgrimages today • Lie facedown at each holy site and temple encountered • .Bathe in Ganges River as an act of devotion and purification • Travel to sacred places • Ganges River • Sarasvati River
Summary • Hinduism - India's first major religion • Five Basic Beliefs • Belief in Brahman • Belief in deities • Belief in dharma • Belief in karma • Belief in Samsara • Hinduism is a link between ancient and modern India • Still worship in temples, make pilgrimages, and celebrate religious festivals • Practice meditation and other ways of connecting with Brahman • Maintain ideals of reverence for life and nonviolence • Seen in abstinence from eating meat • Buddhism grew out of Hinduism