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Chapter 31: Continuing Divisions and New Limits. 1969-1980. For 5 minutes, talk with a partner about everything you know about the decade of the 70s. The New Politics of Identity African American Cultural Nationalism

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slide3

The New Politics of Identity

    • African American Cultural Nationalism
      • Black activists emphasized distinctiveness of black culture & society – growing hair into “naturals” & “afros”
      • 1966  Kwanzaa created to offer a celebration of a shared African heritage
    • Mexican American Activism
      • 1970  9mil lived in SW – discriminated w/ work, pay, schools, etc.
      • Migrant workers on strike against CA grape growers – United Farm Workers got attention (paid $0.10 when minimum wage was $1.25)
      • Customers boycotted & workers rewarded better wages & conditions
    • Chicano Movement
      • Fed Alliance of Grants wanted return of land that ancestors owned before US
      • 1969 National Chicano Liberation Youth Conference adopted manifesto to declare independence
      • Introduced Chicano studies & culture in schools
      • La RazaUnida was SW-based political party
    • Native American Activism
      • 11/1969 “Indians of All Tribes” went to Alcatraz Island demanding return of land – lasted 19 months, not successful
      • National Congress of American Indians & Native American Rights Fund asked Congress to govern themselves
      • Returned lots of land & passed Indian Self-Determinations & Edu Assistance Act
    • Affirmative Action
      • In court – hard to prove discrimination was intentional
      • Philadelphia Plan ordered businesses to hire “minority” people
slide5

The Women’s Movement and Gay Liberation

    • Liberal and Radical Feminism
      • 1966 National Organization for Women wanted to enforce Civil Rights Act
      • Women treated as 2nd class citizens during war
      • “Bra-burners” = women who went to the Miss America Pageant to protest
    • Accomplishments of the Women’s Movement
      • Worked for: Right of married women to get credit in her own name, right of single women to have birth control, right of women to be on juries, end of sex-segregated “help wanted” ads, dealing with rape victims.
      • 1973 Roe v. Wade  Privacy rights let women have abortions
      • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) no discrimination based on sex
    • Opposition to the Women’s Movement
      • Some didn’t want to be equal – Believed it took away from fighting for racial equality
      • STOP-ERA Movement  Believed there would be gov’t intervention in personal lives, decriminalize rape, use a unisex toilet, & have women in military draft
      • ERA falls 3 states short of ratification – expires in 1982
    • Gay Liberation
      • Pre-1973  homosexuality labeled as a mental disorder
      • 6/28/1969  NYPD raided Stonewall Inn b/c more than 3 homosexual men were in the bar at the same time – 1st time someone stood up to the police
      • By 1973  800 gay organizations in the US
slide8

The End in Vietnam

    • Invasion of Cambodia
      • “Vietnamization” = building up South Vietnamese forces to replace US: 1969  543k troops, 1972  60k
      • 3/1969  US bombed Cambodia for 14 months – dropped over 100k tons of bombs from aircrafts
      • 4/1970  South Vietnam & US invaded Cambodia – after 2 months, US troops withdrew
    • Protests and Counter Demonstrations
      • 450 college campuses on strike
      • May 4th Kent State University National Guardsmen fired & killed 4, wounded 11
      • 6/1971 Pentagon Papers – Americans learned leaders lied to them about aims and strategies in Southeast Asia
    • Morale Problems in Military
      • Drug addiction, desertion, racial disorder, murder of unpopular officers (fragging)
      • My Lai Massacre (1968) = Lt William Calley charged with the killing of 300+ unarmed South Vietnamese civilians
    • Paris Peace Accords
      • 12/1972 “Christmas Bombing”  After failed peace agreement b/w North & South Vietnam – US launched massive air strike on North
      • 1/27/1973  Kissinger & Le DucTho signed cease-fire agreement in Paris – both violated and war erupted again
      • 4/29/1975  South Vietnamese gov’t collapsed & Vietnam reunified under Communist gov’t
    • Costs of the Vietnam War
      • 58k+ US & 1.5-2m Vietnamese
      • 100ks civilians in Cambodia & Laos
      • Delayed accomodationw/ USSR & China, friction b/w Allies, & alienated 3rd world countries
    • Debate Over the Lessons of Vietnam
      • “Vietnam Syndrome” = US suspicion of foreign entanglement – scared of becoming less powerful
      • Some blamed war on imperial presidency – let them act w/o restraint
      • 1973 War Powers Act  To limit president’s war-making freedom – Congress had to approve any commitment of US forces to combat action lasting 60+ days
    • Vietnam Veterans
      • Post traumatic stress disorder – some killed women, children, & elderly – felt guilty later
      • 1982 DC  Vietnam Veterans Museum
slide12

Nixon, Kissinger, and the World

      • Nixon Doctrine (7/1969)
        • US would give economic aid to Allies, Allies shouldn’t rely on US troops
      • Détente
        • Measured cooperation w/ Soviets thru negotiations – to limit Soviet expansion & arms buildup
        • Wanted to curb radicalism in 3rd world countries to avoid threats
        • Soviets wanted détente b/c Cold War drained their resources
        • 5/1972 ABM Treaty = b/w US & USSR – limit construction & deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles
      • Opening to China
        • US wanted to end Sino-American hostility – China wanted to spur trade & make USSR scared
        • 1972 trip to “Red China”  Nixon met w/ Mao Zedong & Zhou Enlai – agreed to disagree on a lot except that USSR should not make gains in Asia
      • Wars in the Middle East
        • 1967 Arab-Israeli 6-day War – Israel victories against Egypt & Syria – took 28k sq mi
        • 100ks in Gaza & West Peninsula that Israel took over – all wanted Israel gone
        • 10/1973 (Yom Kippur)  Egypt & Syria attacked Israel
        • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries embargoed shipments of oil to US
      • Anti-radicalism in Latin America & Africa
        • 1970 Chile  CIA started secret operation to overthrow pres Salvador Allende
        • 1973  Installed authoritarian regime under Gen Augusto Pinochet
        • South America  Nixon supported white rulers who used segregation on blacks, keeping them poor, disenfranchised, & in prison-like towns
        • US built ties and sent arms to Kenya and Congo
slide13

Presidential Politics and the Crisis of Leadership

    • Nixon’s Domestic Agenda
      • Doubled National Endowment for Arts & Humanities & created Occupational Safety & Health Admin
      • Republicans = law & order, Democrats = permissiveness, crime, drugs, radicalism, “Hippie Lifestyle”
      • Proposed minimum wage for all citizens – wanted to get rid of fed welfare system & destroy liberal bureaucracy of social workers
      • “Southern strategy” = nominated 2 southerners for Supreme Ct – Congress declined
      • Ct upheld plan that required NC schools to desegregate by bussing children to other county schools
    • Enemies & Dirty Tricks
      • Democratic nominee = George McGovern, opposed Vietnam War
      • 6/17  5 men caught breaking into Democratic National Committee’s Office – associated w/ Committee to Re-elect the President (Nixon won election)
      • “Enemy lists” = all black members of congress & Ivy League universities
      • Plumbers = bugged phones, infiltrated campaign staff – wrote & gave letters falsely accusing Democratic candidates of sexual misconduct
    • Watergate Cover-up & Investigation
      • Nixon not involved – still made CIA stop investigation b/c of national security
      • Obstructed justice (an impeachable crime) – investigation stopped
      • Reporters Carl Bernstein & Bob Woodward continued investigation
      • Nixon recorded conversations in Oval Office – could prove his involvement, but he wouldn’t release them
    • Impeachment & Resignation
      • 10/1973  VP Spiro Agnew resigned – accepted bribes while MD gov– Gerald Ford now VP
      • 10/24/1973  House began impeachment process – Nixon released edited tapes
      • 7/1974  Supreme Ct made Nixon release all tapes – found reasons to impeach him
      • 8/9/1974  became 1st president to resign
      • War Powers Act & 1974 Budget & Impoundment Control Act  impossible for president to disregard congressional spending mandates
slide17

Ford’s Presidency

    • Nation’s 1st unelected president
    • Pardoned Nixon – ending criminal charges, lost approval ratings (71%-41%)
    • Routinely vetoed bills (39 in 1 yr) – Congress often overrode veto
    • Mocked & made fun of in political cartoons & SNL – portrayed as buffoon & klutz
    • 1st president to discover how much rules of changed b/c president was not respected & made fun of on national news when he slipped or made a mistake
  • Carter as “Outsider” President
    • Jimmy Carter elected in 1976 – committed to racial equality & integration
    • Religious Christian that lacked political experience – used it to his advantage by promising the truth & emphasizing his distance from political corruption
    • Proposed to Congress an energy plan that emphasized conservation
    • Worked to ease gov’t regulations w/o destroying consumer & worker safeguards
    • Created Depts of Energy & Edu
    • Established $1.6bil “superfund” to clean up abandoned chemical waste sights – placed more than 100 mil acres of AK land under fed control as national parks & forests
slide21

Economic Crisis

    • Stagflation & Its Causes
      • Economy in “stagflation” = high unemployment & out of control inflation
      • Gov’t tried to increase spending & reduce employment – inflation grew
      • Tried to cut gov’t spending – recession & unemployment grew
      • 1971  US imported more than exported
      • US goods became more expensive & quality of goods declined
      • Depended on imported oil – when OPEC cut off shipments, prices rose 350%
    • Attempts to Fix the Economy
      • Nixon ended gold-standard for $$ - increased price of foreign goods
      • Ford created 1974 Whip Inflation Now to encourage anti-inflation efforts
      • Carter’s attempt to lower unemployment prompted a recession in 1980
      • Carter’s 1978 economic policies helped later (deregulation of airline, trucking, banking, & communications)
    • Impacts of the Economic Crisis
      • 1970s  economy shifted to “service sector” – retail, restaurants, etc.
      • People moved from North industrial regions to the “Sunbelt” – had aerospace, defense, electronics, transportation, research, banking & finance, & leisure
      • Population shift caused disaster in north & midwest cities
    • Tax Revolts
      • Created as property taxes increased & taxpayers saw gov’t as the problem
      • 1978 CA Proposition 13  rolled back property taxes & restricted future increases
      • Caused shortages – states cut schools, libraries, & fire stations
    • Credit & Investment
      • High inflation rates meant there were higher declines in purchasing power of a dollar
      • Began borrowing $ & used credit cards – caused high debt rates
      • Fidelity Investments = a fund company allowed small investors to get high interest rates
slide23

An Era of Cultural Transformation

    • Environmentalism
        • 1969 Santa Barbara, CA  oil spill caused Cuyahoga River to catch fire
        • 1979 Harrisburg, PA  nuclear accident
        • 1980 Love Canal, NY  Carter declared fed emergency b/c 30% of residents suffered from chromosome damage
        • 4/22/1970  1st Earth Day
    • Technology
        • 7/20/1969  Neil Armstrong on moon
        • Poverty, crime, pollution, & urban decay
        • 1970  circuit created, 1975  MIT’s Altair 8800 – had 256 bytes of memory
    • Religion & the Therapeutic Culture
        • Evangelical & Fundamentalist church membership grew dramatically
        • Others looked to “New Age” – Zen Buddhism, yoga, & shamanism
        • “Therapeutic culture” – some believed was self-centered
    • Sexuality & the Family
        • Sex became much more visible in American culture
        • TV programs less strict
        • Single bars & gay bathhouses
        • Started marrying later in life & had fewer children
    • Diversity
        • Awareness of differences made stronger by new immigrants from Latin America & Asia
        • 1978 Regents of the University of CA v. Bakke 33 yr old white man denied admission to med school – believed it was b/c he was white
        • Supreme Ct decided in favor of Allan Bakke
slide26

Renewed Cold War and Middle East Crisis

    • Carter’s Divided Administration
      • Carter listened to national security advisor more than his secretary of state
      • 1976 magazine criticized Carter’s relaxed take of the Cold War
      • Maintained good relations w/ Moscow & other countries around the world
      • 1977  signed 2 treaties w/ Panama
    • Camp David Accords
      • 9/1978  1st mediated peace treaty b/w Israel & an Arab nation
      • Israel promised to withdraw from the Sinai peninsula
      • Arab states denounced agreement for not requiring Israel to relinquish all occupied territories
      • Ended warfare along 1 frontier
    • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
      • Relations w/ Moscow had deteriorated
      • Soviets wanted to deploy missiles at western Europe
      • 12/1979  Soviets invaded Afghanistan b/c of strategic position
      • Carter suspended shipments of grain & high-tech equipment to USSR
      • 1980  boycotted Summer Olympics in Moscow
    • Iranian Hostage Crisis
      • Shah driven from throne b/c it was trying to modernize culture
      • 4/1979  Islamic revolutionaries proclaimed Shi’ite Islamic Republic
      • 11/1979  mobs stormed US Embassy in Teheran & took Americans hostage & demanded that the Shah stood trial
      • 4/1980  Carter broke diplomatic ties & ordered rescue mission
    • Rise of Saddam Hussein
      • 1979  became leader & threatened Teheran gov’t – US thought he would offset Iranian danger
      • 9/1979  war began & US was neutral, but soon went towards Iraq