Health. Belief Model . Raquel Blamires, Becky Siddoway, Ari Messerly Jaquoy Prows Valerie Wheelwright Megan Passey. Background . Theorists:
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Health Belief Model Raquel Blamires, Becky Siddoway, Ari Messerly Jaquoy Prows Valerie Wheelwright Megan Passey
Background • Theorists: • (1950’s) Group of social psychologists: • Godfrey Hochbaum • Stephen Kegels, • Irwin Rosenstock. • Trying to explain why people were not participating in disease detection programs. (Tuberculosis Screening)
Defined Purpose • Value Expectancy Theories: A goal setting theory based on level of aspiration, in which the individual sets the target of future performance based on past performance. • Originally developed to predict preventive health behavior, revised to include general health motivation. Kurt Lewin
Importance • One of the first models developed exclusively for health-related behaviors. • Currently among the most popular models • Has been revised to apply to a greater number of people (Expanded)
Perceived Susceptibility • Definition: Subjective belief that a person may acquire a disease or enter a harmful state as a result of a particular disease.
Perceived Severity • Definition: belief in the extent of harm that can result from the acquired disease or harmful state of a particular behavior. MILD SEVERE (death)
Perceived Benefits • Definition: Belief in the advantages of the methods suggested for reducing the risk or seriousness of the disease of harmful state from a particular behavior.
Perceived Barriers • Concern that the new behavior will take too much time. • Their belief could be actual or imagined.
Cues to action • To cause a force that would make a person feel the need to take action.
Self-efficacy • Confidence in a persons ability to purse a behavior
Primary Prevention example for HBM Should I get the H1N1 vaccination?
Constructs & applications • Perceived susceptibility • How likely is it I will get swine flu? • How bad would it be if I did? • Perceived severity • What do I gain by getting the shot? • Perceived benefits
Constructs & applications • Perceived Barriers • Is it available- what’s the cost? • Cues to Action • Posters, Emails, commercials • Self Efficacy • I am confident I can be healthy
Research Example A. Purpose • Analyze health beliefs on practicing breast self examination (BSE) among Turkish mothers and their daughters, who were nursing students.
Research Example B. Results • Nursing student daughters practiced BSE more regularly than their mothers. • The mothers scored higher in perceived susceptibility and barriers
Research Example C. Conclusions • Significant differences were found between participants. • Education was seen as a factor.
Research Example C. Conclusions continued… • Daughters who had: • lower perceptions of barriers, • higher motivation, • benefit perception, • self-efficacy
Research Example D. Implications • Perceive fewer barrier • Believing in one’s ability • Motivation to do it regularly
Research Example D. Implications continued… • Training by health care providers • Successful BSE • Lowering perceived barriers such as fear, frequency, and time constraints Reference • Kara, B., & Acikel, C. (2009). Health beliefs and breast self-examination in a sample of Turkish nursing students and their mothers. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10), 1412-1421.
Conclusion • Health Belief Model is a value-expectancy model • First theory developed exclusively for health-related behaviors
Conclusion • Strengths • Can be used alone or in conjunction with other models • Understanding what beliefs or attitudes motivate behaviors • Good for the cessation and acquisition of behaviors • Enhances self-control
Conclusion • Weaknesses • Not great for long term behavior change • Lacks predictive power • Difficult to be tested • Self fulfilling prophecy
Conclusion • Consists of six constructs • Perceived susceptibility • Perceived severity • Perceived benefits • Perceived barriers • Cues to action • Self-efficacy Together known as “Perceived Threat”