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Microbial Classification. The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea. One circular chromosome, not in a membrane No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission. Domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes Gram-negative.

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the prokaryotes domains bacteria and archaea
The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  • One circular chromosome, not in a membrane
  • No histones
  • No organelles
  • Peptidoglycan cell walls
  • Binary fission
domain bacteria
Domain Bacteria
  • Proteobacteria
    • Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes
    • Gram-negative
the alpha proteobacteria
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Human pathogens:
    • Bartonella
    • B. hensela Cat-scratch disease
    • Brucella Brucellosis
the alpha proteobacteria5
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Obligate intracellular parasites:
    • Ehrlichia. Tick-borne, ehrlichiosis
    • Rickettsia. Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers
      • R. prowazekii Epidemic typhus
      • R. typhi Endemic murine typhus
      • R. rickettsii Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
the alpha proteobacteria7
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Wolbachia. Live in insects and other animals
the alpha proteobacteria8
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Have prosthecae:
    • Caulobacter. Stalked bacteria found in lakes
    • Hyphomicrobium. Budding bacteria found in lakes

Figure 11.2 & 3

the alpha proteobacteria9
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria:
    • Azospirillum
      • Grow in soil, using nutrients excreted by plants
      • Fix nitrogen
    • Rhizobium
      • Fix nitrogen in the roots of plants

Figure 27.5

the alpha proteobacteria10
The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
  • Produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol:
    • Acetobacter
    • Gluconobacter
the beta proteobacteria12
The  (beta) Proteobacteria
  • Thiobacillus
    • Chemoautotrophic, oxidize sulfur: H2S  SO42–
  • Sphaerotilus
    • Chemoheterotophic, form sheaths

Figure 11.5

the beta proteobacteria13
The  (beta) Proteobacteria
  • Neisseria
    • Chemoheterotrophic, cocci
    • N. meningitidis
    • N. gonorrhoeae
  • Spirillum
    • Chemoheterotrophic, helical

Figure 11.4 & 6

the beta proteobacteria14
The  (beta) Proteobacteria
  • Bordetella
    • Chemoheterotrophic, rods
    • B. pertussis
  • Burkholderia. Nosocomial infections
  • Zoogloea. Slimy masses in aerobic sewage-treatment processes
the gamma proteobacteria16
The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  • Pseudomonadales:
    • Pseudomonas
      • Opportunistic pathogens
      • Metabolically diverse
      • Polar flagella
    • Azotobacter and Azomonas.
      • Nitrogen fixing
    • Moraxella.
      • Conjunctivitis

Figure 11.7

the gamma proteobacteria17
The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  • Legionellales:
    • Legionella
      • Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers
      • L. pneumophilia
    • Coxiella
      • Q fever transmitted via aerosols or milk

Figure 24.15b

the gamma proteobacteria18
The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  • Vibrionales:
    • Found in coastal water
      • Vibrio cholerae causes cholera
      • V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis

Figure 11.8

the gamma proteobacteria19
The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  • The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
    • Enterobacteriales (enterics):
      • Peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic
        • Enterobacter
        • Erwinia
        • Escherichia
        • Klebsiella
        • Proteus
        • Salmonella
        • Serratia
        • Shigella
        • Yersinia
the delta proteobacteria21
The  (delta) Proteobacteria
  • Bdellovibrio. Prey on other bacteria
  • Desulfovibrionales. Use S instead of O2 as final electron acceptor
  • Myxococcales. Gliding. Cells aggregate to form myxospores
the epsilon proteobacteria25
The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria
  • Campylobacter
    • One polar flagellum
    • Gastroenteritis

Figure 11.1a

the epsilon proteobacteria26
The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria
  • Helicobacter
    • Multiple flagella
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Stomach cancer

Figure 11.1b

cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
  • Oxygenic photosynthesis
  • Gliding motility
  • Fix nitrogen
purple and green photosynthetic bacteria
Purple and Green Photosynthetic Bacteria
  • Anoxygenic photosynthesis
  • Purple and green sulfur bacteria

light

2H2O + CO2

(CH2O) + H2O + O2

light

2H2S + CO2

(CH2O) + H2O + 2S0

chlamydiae
Chlamydiae
  • C. trachomatis
    • Trachoma
    • STD, urethritis
  • C. pneumoniae
  • C. psittaci
    • Causes psittacosis