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Special Topic-I PLL Basics and Design. By, A nil K umar Ram Rakhyani (akram). What is it?. PLL = Phase Lock Loop A circuit which synchronizes an adjustable oscillator with another oscillator by the comparison of phase between the two signals.

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special topic i pll basics and design

Special Topic-I PLL Basics and Design

By,

Anil Kumar Ram Rakhyani (akram)

what is it
What is it?
  • PLL = Phase Lock Loop
  • A circuit which synchronizes an adjustable oscillator with another oscillator by the comparison of phase between the two signals.
  • An electronic circuit that synchronizes itself to an external reference signal.
what is it for
What is it for?
  • To generate High Frequency Clock in Microprocessor.
  • In Mobile Communication to generate Carrier Frequency.
  • Can you think of any other Application? Actually there are many.
what does industry say
What does Industry say?
  • ST Microelectronics has vacancies for “PLL Designers”.
  • Texas Instruments (TI) want to recruit “PLL designers”.
  • A lot more Opportunities……..
  • Why it is so challenging?
1 voltage controlled oscillator vco
1.Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
  • What it does?
  • Requirements:
    • High Frequency Operation
    • Good Programmability Range
    • Less sensitive to environment
  • Basic Model: Fout =K * Vin
  • Different Oscillators in literature. How to Select?
  • A simple Example: Ring Oscillator
  • Common Challenges:
    • Programmability Range ( Giga-Hertz Order)
    • Maximum Noise limit
2 divider
2. Divider
  • What it Does?
  • Requirements:
    • Should work on High Frequency( Giga Hertz Order)
    • Should be less power Consuming
  • Challenges:
    • Power Consumption (Power is proprotional to frequency)
    • Switching Speed.
3 phase frequency detector pfd
3. Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD)
  • What it does?
  • Requirement:
    • High Sensitivity
    • Moderate Frequency Operation
  • Challenges:
    • Linearity of PFD
    • Gain of PFD
4 loop filter
4. Loop Filter
  • Functionality
  • Low pass filter
  • Filters out noise of PLL loop
some definitions
Some definitions:
  • Order of PLL – Highest degree of polynomial of characteristics equation (1+ G(s)H(s))
  • Type of PLL – No of poles of loop Transfer function (G(s)H(s)) locate at origin
food for thought
Food for Thought
  • What will be the resolution in terms of frequency of PLL? How will you increase it?
  • What changes you need to do to achieve above goal?
  • What will be specifications of PLL?
  • What is the performance metric of VCO?
    • For Microprocessor?
    • For Transmitter/Receiver IC?