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Seatrade Cruise Shipping Convention 2000 Miami, March 7-11 Session VII: The Regulatory Environment ” Safety of cruise v PowerPoint Presentation
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Seatrade Cruise Shipping Convention 2000 Miami, March 7-11 Session VII: The Regulatory Environment ” Safety of cruise vessels - quo vadis?” Presented by Tor-Chr. Mathiesen, Dr.Ing. Senior Vice President Introduction Reduce risk Safe navigation Fire - effective measures

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Seatrade Cruise Shipping Convention 2000 Miami, March 7-11 Session VII: The Regulatory Environment ” Safety of cruise v

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Seatrade Cruise Shipping Convention 2000

Miami, March 7-11

Session VII: The Regulatory Environment

”Safety of cruise vessels

- quo vadis?”

Presented by

Tor-Chr. Mathiesen, Dr.Ing.

Senior Vice President

  • Reduce risk
    • Safe navigation
    • Fire - effective measures
    • Damage stability - new approach
    • Evacuation - risk analysis
  • Regulatory framework
    • New approach
    • Cost-effectiveness of measures
  • Concluding remarks
  • Challenge - Manage risk
  • Cruise ship safety
    • Some Observations
    • Casualty statistics
    • Major Risks
  • Trends in ship design
  • Towards a Safety Culture, continuous
    • near-miss reporting
    • feedback to crew - operations
    • training of crew
in this presentation

Collision & Grounding

Evacuation Failure


Risks in focus

  • By continuous focus on:
  • improvement
  • analysing incidents & near-miss
  • corrective actions


Risk Evaluation

Risk Control

Risk Monitoring

Managing Risk




Owners challenge

In this presentation
cruise ship safety observations
Cruise Ship Safety- Observations -
  • Casualty statistics are showing a positive trend
  • Fire, grounding and collision incidents are causing concern - potential for casualties?
  • O’Neil, IMO, December 99:
    • Suggesting “a global (holistic) approach to large passenger ship safety …”
    • IMO (MSC 72/21) - proposed work programme: “Enhancing the safety of large passenger ships”
      • …studies on operational safety aspects in emergencies…
      • focus on evacuation
casualty statistics 1978 1998

Cruise ships included

Casualty statistics: 1978-1998*

Cruise -

good safety record

*) Data for passenger ships + ro-ro passenger ships are from 1989-1998

Source:LMIS casualty database april 1999, Eknes M., Kvien M.H “Historical Risk Levels in the Maritime Industry” (DNV-report 99-2028)


Collision & Grounding

Evacuation Failure


Major Risks - Cruise Ships

Source: Skjong, R., P. Adamcik, M. L. Eknes, S. Gran, J. Spouge “Formal Safety Assessment of Helicopter Landing Area on Passenger Ships as a Safety Measure’ DNV Report 97-2053. (Available as IMO/COMSAR 3/2)

6th generation cruise ships
“6th” generation cruise ships


  • Floating “adventure” hotels
  • Architectonic development
  • More advanced systems on automation / monitoring
  • Larger ships - more passengers
  • New groups of passengers - more families
  • New generation of seafarers

Market demand:

Focus onsafety, security and environment.Nothing must go wrong!

towards a safety culture reporting of incidents and near misses

Best Practices

Towards a Safety Culture - Reporting of incidents and near misses -
  • Change in culture, improve after near-misses
  • Motivation (incentives) for reporting
  • Analysis of reports - findingsfeedback
    • to crew / operation
    • to new ship design
  • Take action - update descision support systems
  • Continuous analysis of critical operations
towards a safety culture ism as a tool


Company Values



Managing Risk

Towards a Safety Culture- ISM as a tool -
  • Continuous quality improvement
    • over and above compliance
  • Great emphasis on quality improvement processes, i.e.
    • Motivate pro-active safety behaviour - use incentives
    • Feedback to crew - regular learning - corrective action
  • Crew: Knowledge understanding confidence



towards a safety culture training of crew
Towards a Safety Culture- Training of Crew -
  • Decision support systems - continuously updated
    • Use near-miss cases in crisis management training
  • Emergency drills - procedures - communication
  • Fire and fire fighting - specially certified fire fighters?
  • Training centre for crew and hotel-personnel?
    • Standardised training
    • Share ”best practices”
  • Team-building - familiarisation with group of crisis management personnel (reduce crew turnover)

Collision & Grounding

Company Values

Best Practices

  • Reduce probability:
    • Optimise bridge arrangement for
      • safe and efficient performance of bridge functions for:
        • relevant bridge teams
        • any type of operational situation
    • Automatic Grounding Avoidance System
    • Avoid all disruptions (e.g.“hotel-management”) - reduce stress factors
  • Redundancy
    • navigational systems
    • propulsion, steering, powersupply

Rules & Regulations


  • Often initiated in:
    • Engine rooms - high risk area (cruise ships specially critical due to many engines and small spaces)
    • Galley - Laundry spaces
  • Risk Analysis to identify
    • Ignition sources - protection and extinguishing
    • Equipment which needs special attention / maintenance
  • Smoke spread analysis
  • Requirements: focus on local fire protection systems (engine spaces) IMO MSC/Circ.913 and new Reg.7 of SOLAS Ch.II-2

Best Practices


Reduce risk

Effective measures

  • Identify initiating hot spots:
    • Perform thermograph analysis - IR scanning of engine rooms:
      • temperatures > 220°C :  Isolate / Modify / Remove
  • Fuel oil system/lubrication oil system:
    • Check for insufficient insulation: flanges, turbine housings, clamps, bolts…
    • Proper shielding of fuel oil piping, including flexible hoses
    • Control of flexible hoses, focus on hose connections
damage stability

Collision & Grounding

Rules & Regulations


Damage stability

  • Deterministicmethod (SOLAS90) widely used
  • Present probabilistic method (A265) not validated, consistent and robust with regard to safety
  • EU-project started March 2000 (HARDER, DNV co-ordination):
    • New harmonised probabilistic damage stability requirements (will be made available to IMO) - Assess safety on functional basis rather than using prescriptive criteria alone
    • In-depth evaluation & re-engineering of the probabilistic concept
    • Basis for developing prescriptive risk-based rules / design methodology
    • Leads to more flexible designs and more reliable safety assessment procedures
evacuation mustering abandoning rescue

Evacuation Failure


Evacuation(Mustering - Abandoning - Rescue)
  • Life saving: 75% based on life boats
  • Rafts launched withdavit arrangements
  • Limited use of Marine Evacuation Systems (MES)
  • Required Life Saving Appliances (LSA) not optimal for all realistic weather conditions
  • Lack of realistic Human Element (HE) data
    • Not optimised design of escape ways

Future Expectations

  • Increased use of scenario-based evacuation analysis, input to:
    • facilitation and selection of equipment
    • evacuation planning (also bad weather)
    • regular and realistic crisis management training of crew
  • IMO: LSA-requirements - permitting innovation
safer onboard

Societal Values

Future Expectations

Safer onboard
  • Reduce need for abandoning the ship(more use of “safe havens” onboard?)
  • Establish evacuation models
    • Validate through large scale evacuation tests, HE included
    • Smoke spread analysis
  • Escape from Balconies and Sun Decks require attention
  • Motivate passengers to understand and participate

Rules & Regulations

Future Expectations

  • Tomorrow:
  • Establish safety objective / principles…etc:
  • for efficient risk assessment of innovative design
  • for calibration of existing requirements

Regulatory framework

Safety objective

Principles and Policies

Functional requirements

Present framework based on experience with existing technology

Most IMO


Detailed technical requirements

Present Classification Rules

Other technical standards


Evacuation Failure



Human error, navigation


Part of new approach...

Cost-Benefit Priorities

Event Trees

FSA: What is the cost effective safety measure?


0.3-1 Bulk carriers: forward hold

 8 Ro-ro ferry: Stockholm Agreement

 37 Cruise ship: Helicopter Landing (with high uncertainty)Area (HLA)

ICAF (Mill US$)

3 Mill US$ Commonly used decision criteria


Cruise ships HLA not justified.

Example of cost-effectiveness analysis

Implied Cost of Averting a Fatality (ICAF)

 Descision criteria range


Future expectations...

Concluding remarks- Reduce risk -

  • Fire safety:
    • Continuous search for ignition sources
    • Thermograph analysis of engine room
    • Focus on fuel oil systems
    • Local fire protection systems now
  • Safe navigation:
    • Bridge arrangement and manning in focus

Future expectations...

Concluding remarks - Reduce risk -

  • Survival capability:probabilistic methods
    • Initiative from IMO/EU on large cruise passenger ships
  • Evacuation:risk analysis
    • Realistic scenarios
    • Realistic human element data
    • IMO: LSA-requirements - permitting innovation
  • Regulatory framework:
    • Establish modern framework for safety assessment
    • Holistic approach to safety

Future expectations...

Concluding remarks - Towards a Safety Culture -

  • Continuous incident/near-miss reporting
  • Continuous analysis of critical operations
  • Feedback to crew - operation
    • and feedback to design of new ship
  • Motivate pro-active safety behaviour - use incentives
  • Realistic training of crew
    • Emergency situations / decision support / teamwork

Continuous improvement!