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“Fire in the city air and I feared for my sister’s life in a way never before, And then, and now, I fear for the rest of us.” -Suheir Hammad

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right now the face of terror mostly looks like me richard montoya

“Fire in the city air and I feared for my sister’s life in a way never before,

And then, and now, I fear for the rest of us.”

-Suheir Hammad

“My Palestinian cousins in Texas have beautiful brown little boys. Many of them haven’t gone to school yet. And now they have this heavy word to carry in their backpacks along with weight of their papers and books.”

“Right now,

The face of terror

Mostly

Looks

Like

Me.”

-Richard Montoya

slide2
Arab Americans

By Aaron and Tracy

defining the term arab american
Defining the term Arab American

The term “Arab American” refers to immigrants to North America from the Arabic-speaking countries of the Middle East and their descendants

slide5
Cultural Facts

Common factual words to describe the Arab American population:

-Hardworking

-Law abiding

-Family oriented

-Traditional

-Generous

-Humanitarian

-Polite

Important Values of the Arab American culture:

-Dignity

-Honor

-Reputation

-Trust

-Loyalty

-Education and Learning

-As detailed by the FBI

demographics
Demographics

-There are 20-23 Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East

*225-280 million people

-One of the fastest growing groups worldwide; especially in Western countries

-Population of 3-3.5 million in United States

in the united states
In the United States

-The Lebanese population is the largest group of Arab Americans and account for 39% of the population

-1/3 of the Arab American population live in California, Michigan, and New York

-also large populations in: Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania,

arab american history
Arab American History

Two Major Waves of Immigration

-From the 1870’s to World War II

-large numbers in the 1880s

-From World War II to the present

problems with charting immigration
Problems with charting immigration

-Immigration officials used different classifications

-until 1899 immigration statistics logged Arabs in the same category as Greeks, Armenians, and Turks

-Used different labels/names to describe population at different times

-for example until WWII Syrian or Syrian-Lebanese was the most common

the first wave 1870 s to world war ii
The First Wave1870’s to World War II

-most Arab immigrants came from the Greater Syria region, especially present-day Lebanon

-were mostly Christian

-remember the Middle East is where Christianity developed

-estimated 130,000 Arab Americans by the late 1930s and right before WWI up to 350,000

-considered themselves sojourners; not part of American society

reasons for 1 st wave immigration
Reasons for 1st Wave Immigration

-economic necessity

-the economy suffered crippling blows in the mid-1880’s when trade routes shifted away from Syria

-the second major blow was in the 1890’s when Lebanese vineyards invaded by phylloxera (a grape eating insect) and left in ruins

-Rapid population increase Syrian

-agriculture and industry could not keep up

-the subsistence economy could now only support one child and other children had to fend for themselves

reasons for 1 st wave immigration13
Reasons for 1st Wave Immigration

-Personal Advancement

-lured by the promise of the New World great wealth

-To escape religious persecution and the lack of political and civil freedom by the Ottoman regime

-Christians were not accorded equal status as their Muslim neighbors

-For safety of their families

-leaving to avoid the massacres because of religious preference

reasons for 1 st wave immigration14
Reasons for 1st Wave Immigration

-Other reasons

-Improved transportation and communication worldwide

-development of steam navigation made sea travel safer and shorter

-aggressiveness of agents of steamship companies in recruiting new immigrant passengers

1 st wave immigrants
1st Wave Immigrants

-poor

-uneducated

-illiterate in any language

-unskilled workers

-mostly factory workers and miners

-isolated

-lonely

1 st wave immigrants16
1st Wave Immigrants

Becoming Peddlers

-was a way to escape poverty and unskilled labor jobs

-did not require training, capital, or in depth knowledge of English

-usually a better-established fellow Arab immigrant would help get “suitcase” to start

-still required hard work and long hours but a greater opportunity for profit

-start of Arab Americans opening dry-good stores

the second wave
The Second Wave

-This wave of immigrants came from all parts of the Arab world

-especially from Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Iraq and Yemen

-Had larger numbers of Muslim community

-In the 1990s it is estimated at less than 1 million to today it is estimated at 3 million

second wave immigrants reasons for immigration
Second Wave ImmigrantsReasons for Immigration

-economic need and attraction of a major industrial society

-regional conflicts and civil wars

-major social and political changes

-especially for wealthy or middle class

-wanted U.S. for democratic haven

-psychological piece

-the world seemed smaller and the thought of migration is more acceptable

second wave immigrants
Second Wave Immigrants

-relatively well-off

-semi or highly educated professional

-students at American universities who decided to stay

-wanted to educate American society on the Arab culture

-created more political and champion organizations to support the Arab communities and their needs

life in america
Life in America

-Large engagement in commerce

-Dreams of retiring in old village or neighborhood

-Primary long term contacts were with other Arab Americans

-Formed own residential communities

major differences between 1 st and 2 nd waves
Major differences between 1st and 2nd Waves

1st Wave immigrants first thought of themselves as sojourners and once decided to stay assimilated to fit in

2nd Wave immigrants had a revival of the heritage and identity as an ethnic community, came to the country prepared to stay from the beginning

slide22
The two immigrant waves had differences based on characteristics and the different challenges faced in social and political arenas

The two communities began to come together in the 1960s, especially after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war

-compare this concept to the out pouring of patriotism in American after September 11.

demographics23
Demographics

-Metropolitan Detroit is home to roughly 300,000 Arab Americans and is one of the largest populations of Arabs outside the Middle East

-Arab-Americans have been in the United States for many years

-The earliest records show descendants of Middle Eastern families who settled the Detroit area starting in the 1890s (mostly merchants and peddlers)

-Up to 5,000 Arabs emigrate to the Detroit area each year

religious demographics
Religious Demographics

-63 percent of all Arab-Americans are Christians

-35 percent of all Arab-Americans are Catholic or Eastern Orthodox

-24 percent are Muslim

-The remainder belong to other religions or no religion

things to know arab americans a complex culture
Things to KnowArab Americans: a complex culture

-Politically Diverse: monarchies, socialist parties and militant parties, etc.

-Religiously Diverse: Islam (primary), Christian, Jewish, Bahais, Alaouis, Zoroastrians

-Contributions of their rich cultural heritage: Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Medicine, Architecture, Art, Mathematics, Natural Sciences

things to know cultural knowledge
Things to KnowCultural Knowledge

-The Arab American culture operates in a patriarchal context

-Kinship structure is called the Hamula

-details a family lineage through a common male ancestor

-Family-oriented

things to know rules of socialization
Things to KnowRules of Socialization
  • Expect minimal eye contact
      • Especially between different sexes!
  • Never show the soles of your shoes
  • Don’t slouch in chairs
  • Handshaking
  • Gender Differences
post september 11
Post-September 11

-Destruction of civil liberties

-Racial Profiling

-Loss of safety

-Family members would just disappear

-Worry about informants and spies

-Challenges to applying for citizenship

-Living in a world of political conflict

-Life under a microscope of World Focus

september 11 2001 not just our day of devastation
September 11, 2001Not Just Our Day of Devastation
  • Fact vs. Fiction

-Deliberate mythmaking by film and media

-The U.S. government selling of a political agenda

-Public susceptibility

  • Fear and Grief helped perpetuate these beliefs
slide30
History Repeats Itself…

*Backward movement on racism based on fear

-Japanese Americans 1940’s

-Native Americans

-Nazis Genocide

arab american communities
Arab American Communities

What they hope for…

…to eliminate crime in their neighborhoods

…to feel safe

…to watch their children thrive

…to not be the face of terrorists

what they got instead
What they got instead

-Living in fear

-Always under suspicion

-hate mail/death threats

-informants and spies in their communities

-loss of culture due to fear

definition of cultural competence
Definition of Cultural Competence
  • A working definition:
    • to seek to understand the various and integrated factors that make up the diverse ethnicity of Arab-Americans, and apply these concepts to a workable service plan that shows honor and respect within each cultural context.
    • Ethnicity = Arab (like Latino-Hispanic)

Culture/Nationalism = Lebanese, Egyptian

cultural awareness
Cultural Awareness
  • Generalist- need to understand the culture around you. Are they Arab, Persian, Turkish, Afghani, or another group?
    • If they are Arab, need to find out level of traditional practice in the home, within the cultural/nationalistic framework.
  • Advanced- need to understand the various life stages of Arab ethnicity. How they view death, honor, illness, and religion.
knowledge acquisition
Knowledge Acquisition
  • Generalist level- important to know the demographics of Arab population.
    • Census 2000
      • under-representation
    • Zogby International and other polling
  • Advanced level- important to know specific theoretical contexts for Arab Americans.
    • Ethnicity, culture, minority, class, nationalism, religion
special tools
Special Tools
  • Generalist level- case studies, cultural guides, media, and related sociological journals. Empowerment perspective through passive-aggressive means.
  • Advanced level- need assessments, focus groups, community centers, economic primer programs. Task-centered perspective utilized in a seemingly passive way. Learn the Arabic language.
implications implications implications
Implications, Implications, Implications…
  • Micro-
    • traditional Arab families have not utilized social workers in the past, they will not usually want to engage in a work relationship. They see their families as their support network and service provider
    • start with a general knowledge base and then ask rather sensitive questions to determine cultural/nationalistic affiliations and level of assimilation
more micro
More Micro
  • Use genograms and ecomaps to show the client their familial and community resources
  • Empower clients towards self-determination whenever possible
  • Keep up relationships with clients who have done well in working relationships. They may be cultural guides/interpreters some day
  • Learn some basic Arabic phrases to read and speak
implications on mezzo
Implications on Mezzo
  • Agency-
    • sensitive program development that utilizes the strong familial and community ties
    • focus on programs that build pride and independence
      • Economic/business
      • Heritage and Community Centers
      • Higher Educational opportunities
      • Legacy and long-term programs (community bldg)
implications on macro
Implications on Macro
  • Community/National
    • Advocate for policies that:
      • protect Arab freedom, less stringent/intrusive
      • promote growth of Arab communities
      • promote understanding of Arab population
      • display accurate data on Arab demographics
        • Census 2000
      • help empower Arabs to advocate for themselves through sneaky, passive means ;)
overall
Overall
  • Remember that Arabs are proud, and sensitive to any type of shame.
  • They are a hurting people who feel that they are not always at home, but are more like refugees until they are accepted
  • They want what everyone else wants in America
  • They are fighting in our armed services
case study implications
Case Study - Implications
  • ACCESS- in Dearborn, MI
    • Serves greater Detroit Metro area
    • Close to 400,000 Arab Americans in the area

www.accesscommunity.org

the process
The Process
  • Important to continue to gain knowledge, because we probably will not be working in such a context like ACCESS
    • research, cultural guides, travel to Arab communities, confer with Arab program workers, know current events here in U.S. and abroad that affect Arabs, attend events, and review the literature often.
graduate school
Graduate School

*Price for books: $500/semester

*Cost of Graduate school: $20,000/year

*Average amount of sleep: 5 hours/nightly (maybe)

*Using our cultural competency knowledge to counteract racism: Priceless

slide45
Arab-Americans, Seeking Clout , By: Caruso, Lisa, National Journal, 0360-4217, July 22, 2006, Vol. 38, Issue 29
  • Abu El-Haj, T.R. (2006). Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Framework
  • for Conceptualizing Educational Equity. Educational Policy, 20(1), 13-34.
  • Al-Krenawi, A. & Graham, J.R. (2000). Culturally Sensitive Social Work Practice with
  • Arab Clients in Mental Health Settings. Health & Social Work, 25(1), 9-22.
  • Baum, N. (2006). Social Work Practice in Conflict-Ridden Areas: Cultural
  • Sensitivity is Not Enough. British Journal of Social Work Advance Access, 1-19.
  • Bayoumi, M. (2006). Arab America's September 11. The Nation, 22-26.
  • Blum, D.E. (2002). Making a Place for Arab-Americans. Chronicle of Philanthropy,
  • 14(6).
  • El Said, M. (2003). The Face of the Enemy: Arab-American Writing Post-9/11. Studies in
  • the Humanities, 30, 200.
  • Hammoud, M.M., MD., White, C.B., PhD., & Fetters, M.D., MD., MPH., MA. (2005).
  • Opening Cultural Doors: Providing Culturally Sensitive Healthcare to Arab American and American Muslim

Patients. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 193, 1307-1311.

  • Navarro, J. (2002). Interacting with Arabs and Muslims. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
  • 20-23.
  • Suleiman, M.W. (1999). The Arab Immigrant Experience. Retrieved December 10, 2006 from Temple University Press, National Institute for Technology Liberal Education Website:   http://arabworld.nitle.org/texts.php?module_id=9&reading_id=33
  • ACCESS. (2006). Departments. Retrieved on December 8th, 2006 from

http://www.accesscommunity.org

  • Brittingham, A. & Cruze, G. (2003). The Arab Population:2000. Retrieved on December

8th, 2006 from http://www.census.gov

  • Dokhanchi, K. (2006). Personal Communication.
  • Kaffer, N. (2004). Where Victims Become Survivors. Retrieved on December 8th, 2006

from http://www.pressandguide.com

  • Lum, D. (2007). Culturally Competent Practice: A Framework for Understanding Diverse

Groups and Justice Issues. (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.

  • US Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2006). Arab Cultural Awareness: 58

Factsheets. Retrieved on December 8th, 2006 from http://www.fas.org

  • Zogby International. (2002). Arab American Demographics Report. Retrieved on

December 6th, 2006 from http://www.zogby.com