Polarization and Social Cohesion in Latin America. Luis F. Lopez-Calva Chief Economist, RBLAC UNDP. Main Idea.
Luis F. Lopez-Calva
Chief Economist, RBLAC
Social cohesion could be simply defined by:
(taking the definition of cohesion and adding the “social” part to it)
Suppose that an individual with income x feels group identification I(x, F) under the distribution F, and alienation r(x, y) with respect to some individual with income y. As in ER, they take the effective antagonism that individual x feels towards y as some function T(I, r) strictly increasing in r. Effective antagonism increases with alienation, but this alienation is taken to be fueled by some sense of identification as well.
Polarization is the ‘sum’ of all effective antagonisms:
where αis some positive constant capturing the importance of group Identification in the determination of interpersonal effective antagonism.
…(CR, Uruguay, Venezuela); with no exceptions: Bolivia and Colombia, which started high and saw increases.