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Gram Negative. Bacterial Diseases. Proteobacteria. Alpha: Parasitic bacteria Tick borne diseases Flea vector Beta: GNC Gamma Largest group Enterics Delta Sulfur reducing bacteria in soil/water Predatory (attack other bacteria) Epsilon : GI. Gram Negative Cell Wall. Neisseria.

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gram negative

Gram Negative

Bacterial Diseases

proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
  • Alpha: Parasitic bacteria
    • Tick borne diseases
    • Flea vector
  • Beta: GNC
  • Gamma
    • Largest group
    • Enterics
  • Delta
    • Sulfur reducing bacteria in soil/water
    • Predatory (attack other bacteria)
  • Epsilon : GI
neisseria
Neisseria
  • Characteristics
    • GNC, diplococci
    • Capnophile
    • Nonmotile
    • Oxidase (+)
  • Pathogenicity
    • Fimbria
    • Capsule
    • Protease (inhibit IgA)
    • LOS (oligosaccharide)
      • Lipid A endotoxin
neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis
  • Epidemiology
    • Normal microbiotica (resp)
  • Pathogenicity
    • Various strains
    • Capsule
    • LOS: lipid A
  • Disease
    • meningitis
    • Septicemia/death
  • Dx: CNS, Ab
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention
    • Vaccination
    • Prophylactic AB to exposed
neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Gonococci
    • Eye
    • Pharynx
    • Uritogenital
    • Rectum
  • Pathogenicity
    • Adhesins
      • Pili
      • Protein II
    • Replicate in WBCs
  • Disease
    • STD “Clap”
    • PID  scar tissue
    • Neonatal conjunctivitis
    • Inflammation
      • Urinary
      • Repro
      • Oral Cavity
neisseria gonorrhoeae7
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Dx
    • Culture/Isolation
    • Symptoms
  • Tx:
    • AB
      • Cepha-
      • quinolones
    • Iodine/Silver Nitrate (eye)
  • Prevention:
    • Screen/Detection
    • Tx infected individuals
    • Condom use
    • Public education
enterobacteriaceae
Enterobacteriaceae
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
    • Motile = flagella
    • Capsule/slime layer
    • Nitrate reduction
    • FA
    • Oxidase (-)
  • Epidemiology
    • Source
      • GI
      • Water
      • Soil
      • Decaying vegetation

Gamma Proteobacteria

enterobacteriaceae9
Enterobacteriaceae
  • Groups
    • Gammaproteobacteria: Enterics
      • Coliforms
      • Noncoliforms
      • Pathogens
    • FA
    • Oxidase (-)
    • Reduce nitrate
    • (cocco)bacilli
enterobacteriaceae10
Enterobacteriaceae
  • Pathogenicity
    • LPS
      • Core polysaccharide
      • O polysaccharide
      • Lipid A endotoxin
    • Antigens
      • Capsular (K)
      • Flagellar (H)
    • Virulence factors
      • Immune evasion
        • Capsule
        • Fimbriae
        • Type III secretion system
      • Adhesins
      • Exotoxins
      • Hemolysins
      • Iron-binding compounds
enterobacteriaceae11
Enterobacteriaceae
  • Dx
    • Culture/Isolation
      • MAC
      • EMB
    • Location
  • Tx
    • Supportive
    • AB
  • Prevention
    • Hand washing
    • Sewage control
coliforms
Coliforms
  • Normal GI microbiotica
  • Groups
    • Escherichia
    • Klebsiella
    • Serratia
    • Enterobacter
    • Hafnia
    • Citrobacter
  • Biochemical tests
    • Ferment lactose
enteric bacteria
Enteric Bacteria
  • Pathogenicity
    • Glycocalyx
    • LPS
      • Core polysaccharide
      • O antigen
      • Lipid A endotoxin
    • K (capsular) antigens
    • H (flagellar) antigens
    • Fimbria
    • Adhesins
    • Exotoxins
    • Hemolysins
    • Bacteriocins
    • Iron binding proteins
    • Sex Pili  AB resistance
enteric bacteria14
Enteric Bacteria
  • Diagnosis
    • Culture
    • Biochemical tests
  • Treatment
    • AB
    • Toxin neutralization
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Clean water supply
esherichia coli
Esherichia coli
  • Coliform
    • E. coli O157:H7
  • Pathogenicity
    • O, H, K antigens
    • Plasmids for virulence
    • Shiga-like Toxin
    • Type III secretion system
      • Disrupt PM
      • Receptors for attachment
  • Diseases
    • Gastroenteritis
      • Food-fecal contamination
    • UTI
      • Uremic syndrome
      • Pyelonephritis
    • Septicemia
    • Neonatal meningitis
klebsiella
Klebsiella
  • Epidemiology
    • Nosocomial
    • Reservior
      • Soil, water
      • GI
      • Respiratory tract
  • Pathogenicity
    • Polysaccharide capsules
  • Diseases
    • UTI
    • Bacteremia
    • Meningitis
    • Pneumonia
      • Cherry red sputum
      • Lung abscess
      • Empyema
  • Dx: Culture
  • Tx: AB
serratia
Serratia
  • Characteristics
    • Red pigment
    • coliform
  • Agent: S. marcescens
  • Epidemiology
    • Nosocomial
      • Opportunistic
      • Fomites (catheters, saline solutions)
    • GI
    • Soil, water
  • Pathogenicity
    • AB resistance
    • Endotoxin
  • Diseases
    • UTI
    • URTI
enterobacter
Enterobacter
  • Agents
    • E. aerogenes
    • E. cloacae
  • Location
    • Coliform
    • Water, sewage
    • Soil
  • Epidemiology
    • Opportunistic
      • Blood
      • Wounds/incisions
    • Nosocomial
  • Pathogenicity
    • Endotoxin
    • AB resistance
  • Disease
    • Dairy contaminant
    • UTI
    • Pneumonia
hafnia formerly enterobacter sp
Characteristics

GNR, FA

motile

Agent: H. alvei (2 biogroups)

Epidemiology

GI micorbiotica (HARF)

Opportunistic, nosocomial

Pathogenesis

Attach and efface enterocyte mucosa (LEE)

Disease

Diarrhea

Gastroenteritis

Peritinitis

Septecemia

Liver Abscesses

UTI

Endocarditis

Meningitis

Pneumonia

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Hafnia (formerly Enterobacter sp)
citrobacter
Characteristics

GNR, FA

Ferment lactose

Agent: C. freundii

Epidemiology

GI microbiotica (HARF)

Soil, water

Decaying vegetation

Pathogenesis

Opportunistic

Lipid A endotoxin

Disease

UTI

Cholecystitis

Meningitis

OM

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Citrobacter
noncoliform
Noncoliform
  • Opportunistic
  • Nosocomial
  • Diseases
    • UTI
    • Kidney stones
  • Groups
    • Proteus
    • Morganella
    • Providencia
    • Edwardsiella
  • Biochemical
    • Non lactose fomenters
proteus
Proteus
  • Characteristics
    • GNR, FA
    • Flagella (polar), swarms
    • Urease (+)
  • Agent
    • P. mirabilis
    • P. vulgaris
  • Epidemiology
    • Colon, soil & water
    • Opportunistic
  • Pathogenicity
    • Urease
    • Motility
    • Endotoxin
  • Disease
    • UTI (catheter)
    • Kidney stones
  • Dx: Culture
  • Tx: AB, resistance is developing
morganella formerly proteus sp
Characteristics

GNR, FA, motile

Only glucose fermentation

Agents

M. morganii

Epidemiology

GI microbiotica (HAR)

Nosocomial

Pathogenesis: Lipid A endotoxin

Disease

UTI

GI diarrhea

CNS infection

Ear and Sinus infections

Dx: Culture

Tx: AB

Morganella (formerly Proteus sp.)
providencia
Characteristics

GNR

Motile

FA

Agents:

P. stuartii

P. rettgeri

P. alcalifaciens

Epidemiology

Normal GI microbiotica

animals

humans

Nosocomial

Catheter

Endotracheal tubes

Pathogenesis: plasmid codes for urease

Disease

GU: UTI, prostatitis, kidney stones

Pneumonia

Bacteremia

Dx: Culture fluids, feces

Tx: AB, but developing resistance

Providencia
edwardsiella
Characteristics

GNR, FA

+/- motility

Agents

E. hoshinae

E. tarda

Epidemiology

Opportunistic

GI tract (HARF)

Pathogenesis

Disease

Gastroenteritis

UTI

Wound infections

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Edwardsiella
pathogenic enteric bacteria
Pathogenic Enteric Bacteria
  • Characteristics
    • NLF
    • Virulence
      • Type III secretion
      • Toxins
  • Groups
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersinia
salmonella
Salmonella
  • Characteristic
    • GNR
    • Motile (peritrichous)
    • Gas production
    • H2S production
    • Urease (-)
    • Oxidase (-)
  • Location
    • GI (S. enterica)
    • 2,000 serovars
  • Examples
    • S. typhi
    • S. paratyphi
    • S. typhimurium
salmonella pathogenicity
Salmonella pathogenicity
  • Epidemiology
    • Fecal contamination
    • Poultry products
    • Milk
  • Pathogenicity
    • Many serotypes
    • Proteins  endocytosis
    • Invade intestinal mucosa
    • Toxins
      • Enterotoxin
      • Cytotoxin
  • Diseases
    • Salmonellosis
      • N/V/D
      • Bacteremia
    • Typhoid fever
      • Gastroenteritis
      • Bacteremia
      • Peritonitis
salmonella29
Salmonella
  • Dx
    • Culture
    • Isolation
    • Symptoms
  • Tx
    • Supportive
    • AB
    • Cholecystectomy
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Proper food handling
      • Cooking
      • Refrigeration
    • Vaccination
salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhi
  • Epidemiology
    • Source
      • Carrier’s feces
    • Transmission
      • Contaminated food/H2O
  • Pathogenesis
    • Invade GI spread to LN, Liver, GB
    • Shed bacteria in feces: 3mos
    • Abdominal pain, anorexia
  • Disease
    • Typhoid fever
  • Dx: Culture blood, feces; Serology
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention:
    • Food handling
    • Isolation of infected individuals
    • Vaccine for high risk individuals
shigella
Shigella
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
    • Nonmotile
    • FA
    • (-): urease, oxidase
  • Examples
    • S. dysenteriae
    • S. flexneri
    • S. boydii
    • S. sonnei
shigella32
Shigella
  • Location
    • GI pathogen
  • Epidemiology
    • Source: food/water contamination with feces
    • Transmission
      • Fecal-oral
      • 4 F’s
        • food
        • fingers
        • feces
        • flies
shigella33
Shigella
  • Pathogenesis
    • Multiply in colon mucosa
    • Disrupt phagosome membrane and invade
    • Toxins
      • Exotoxin: Shiga Toxin
      • Endotoxin
  • Disease
    • Diarrhea:
      • water, blood, mucus
      • Shigellosis dysentery
    • Ulcerate colon
  • Dx: Isolates, biochemical tests, serology
  • Tx: fluid support, AB
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Sewage treatment
yersinia
Yersinia
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
  • Location
    • GI of animals
    • Endemic (in West Texas)
  • Epidemiology
    • Food/H20 contamination with feces
      • Direct contact
      • Indirect: inhalation
    • Vector: flea bite
  • Agents
    • Y. enterocolitica
    • Y. pseudotuberculosis
    • Y. pestis
yersinia35
Yersinia
  • Pathogenicity
    • Pathogen
    • YOPS
      • outer membrane proteins
      • Prevent phagocytosis
    • Plasmid virulence factors
      • Adhesins
      • Type III secretion systems
        • Trigger apoptosis
          • PMN
          • MO
yersinia36
Yersinia
  • Diseases
    • Gastroenteritis (Y. enterocolitica)
      • SI
      • Mesenteric LN
    • Plague (Y. pestis)
      • Bubonic (LN)
      • Pneumonic (Lungs)
  • Dx: Blood ID, culture, PCR
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention: control
    • Rodent
    • Flea
    • Vaccination
    • Isolation of infected persons
plague life cycle
Plague life cycle
  • Reservoir
    • Rats
    • Mice
    • Voles
  • Vector: Flea
  • Hosts
    • Amplify
      • Prairie dogs
      • Rabbits
      • Deer
      • Dogs/Cats
  • Cycle
    • Flea bite
    • Exposure to infected animals
bubonic plague
Bubonic Plague
  • Lymphadenopathy
  • Bacteremia
  • DIC
  • S.C. Hemorrhage
  • Gangrene
  • “Black” Death
pneumonic plague
Pneumonic Plague
  • Lungs
    • Bloody sputum
    • Dyspnea
  • Respiratory droplet
alpha beta other gamma proteobacteria
Alpha, Beta, & other Gamma proteobacteria
  • Aerobic
  • GNR
  • Groups
    • Alpha
      • Bartonella
      • Brucella
    • Beta
      • Bordetella
      • Burkholderia
    • Gamma
      • Pseudomonads
        • Pseudomonas
        • Moraxella
        • Acinetobacter
      • Francisella
      • Legionella
      • Coxiella
bartonella
Bartonella
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
  • Location: animals
  • Vectors: insects
  • Examples
    • B. bacilliformis
    • B. quintana
    • B. henselae
bartonella diseases
Bartonella Diseases
  • Bartonellosis
    • Sand flies
    • RBCs invaded
  • Trench fever
    • Lice
    • Bone pain
  • Bacillary
    • Angiomatosis
    • Peliosis hepatitis
  • Cat-Scratch fever
    • fleas
    • Cat nails, teeth
    • LN and abscesses
brucella
Brucella
  • Characteristics
    • coccobacillus
  • Location
    • Intracellular parasite
    • Animal hosts
  • Pathogenicity
    • Prevent phagolysosome
  • Examples
    • B. melitensis
    • B. abortus
    • B. suis
    • B. canis
brucella45
Brucella
  • Epidemiology
    • Unpasteurized dairy
    • Animal blood / urine
    • Reproductive organs
  • Disease
    • Undulant fever (Bangs)
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention
    • Animal vaccination
bordetella
Bordetella
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
    • GN coccobacillus
  • Location
  • Examples
    • B. pertussis
    • B. parapertussis
    • B. bronchiseptica
bordetella48
Bordetella
  • Epidemiology
    • Inhaled aerosols
    • Inhibit ciliary action
  • Pathogenicity
    • Adhesins
    • Toxins
      • Pertussis
      • Adenylate cyclase
      • Dermonecrotic
      • Tracheal
  • Disease: whooping cough
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Vaccination (DPT)
burkholderia
Burkholderia
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
    • Flagella
  • Location
    • environmental
    • Opportunistic:
      • Lungs
      • Joints
      • Skin
  • Diseases
    • Meliodosis
    • Glanders
  • Example
    • Burk. cepacia
    • Burk. mallei
    • Burk. pseuodomallei
pseudomonads
Pseudomonads
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
    • aerobic
  • Location
    • Environment: soil
    • Moist areas
    • opportunistic
  • Examples
    • Pseudomonas
    • Moraxella
    • Actinobacter
pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Pathogenicity
    • Fimbria= biofilms
    • Adhesins
    • Enzymes
      • Neuraminidase
      • elastase
    • Capsule
    • ROS
    • Drug Antiports
    • Toxins
      • Endotoxin: Lipid A
      • Exotoxin
        • Exotoxin A
        • Exoenzyme S
pseudomonas aeruginosa53
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Diseases
    • Bacteremia
    • Endocarditis
    • UTI
    • CNS
    • GI
    • M/SK
    • Burn
    • Resp
moraxella catarrhalis formerly branhamella sp
Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly Branhamella sp)
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
    • Short bacilli
  • Disease
    • Opportunistic
    • URTI
    • Ears
    • Sinusitis
acinetobacter
Acinetobacter
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
    • Short bacillus
  • Location
    • Soil
    • Water
    • Sewage
  • Diseases
    • Opportunistic
    • URTI
    • UTI
    • CNS
    • Endocarditis
francisella
Francisella
  • Characteristics: GNR
  • Agent: F. tularensis
  • Epidemiology
    • Animal reservoirs (rabbits)
    • Transmission
      • Vector bite (tick, fly, mosq)
      • Direct contact with infected tissue
      • Inhalation
  • Pathogenesis
    • Ulcer
    • Enlarged LN
  • Disease
    • Tuleremia
  • Dx: Culture, PCR, FlorescentAb/Agglut
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention
    • Vector control
    • Vaccination
francisella tularensis
Francisella tularensis
  • Characteristics
    • Aerobic
    • Coccobacillus
  • Location
    • Water
    • Intracellular parasite
  • Epidemiology
    • Zoonotic
      • Bite mosquito, fly
      • Tick feces
      • Infected animal
        • Rabbit
        • muskrat
    • Tularemia
  • Pathogenicity
    • Capsule
    • Beta lactamase
  • Disease
    • LN buboes
    • Resp: cough, pain
    • Death
legionella
Legionella
  • Source: environment
    • Soil
    • Water (A/C, showers)
  • Epidemiology
    • Airborne
    • Chronic illness susceptible
  • Path
    • Cytotoxic protease
  • Diseases
    • Severe bronchopneumonia
    • Pontiac fever
  • Dx : Isolation, urine Ag
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention
    • clean environment
    • Water chlorination
legionella pneumophila
Legionella pneumophila
  • Characteristic
    • Aerobic
    • Pleomorphic
  • Location: water
  • Epidemiology
    • Intracellular parasite
    • Inhalation of aerosols
  • Pathogenicity
    • Protozoa carry
    • Exit pores
  • Disease
    • Pneumonia
    • 2nd: GI, Urinary
coxiella burnetii
Coxiella burnetii
  • Characteristic
    • aerobe
  • Location
    • Intracellular parasite
    • phagolysosome
  • Epidemiology
    • Hosts
      • Avian
      • Mammals
    • Vector: Tick
  • Pathogenicity
    • Spore like infective body
  • Human Disease
    • Inhale infective body
    • Q fever
      • Acute
      • Chronic
pasteurellaceae
Pasteurellaceae
  • Gammaproteobacteria
    • GNR
    • Oxidase (+)
    • FA
    • Nonmotile
  • Groups
    • Pasteurella
    • Haemophilus

Bovine pneumonia

pasteurella
Pasteurella
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
  • Agent: P. multocida
  • Location
    • Normal microbiotica in animals
      • Oral
      • Resp
  • Exposure
    • Animal bite
    • Aerosol
  • Pathogenesis
    • Zoonotic
  • Disease
    • Humans
      • Abscess
      • Arthritis
    • Animals
      • Pneumonia
      • Sepsis
haemophilus
Haemophilus
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
    • Pleomorphic
  • Location
    • MM parasite
  • Examples
    • H. influenza
    • H. ducreyi
    • H. aphrophilus
    • H. parainfluenza
    • H. aegyptius
haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus influenzae
  • Pathogenicity
    • Capsule
    • K antigen
    • Various strains
  • Disease
    • Meningitis
    • Infantile arthritis
    • Cellulitis
    • Epiglottitis
    • Ocular and Aural (OM)
    • Sinusitis
    • URTI (bronchitis. Pneumonia)
  • Tx: AB
  • Prevention
    • vaccination
haemophilus parainfluenza
Haemophilus parainfluenza
  • Characteristics
  • Epidemiology
    • Component of dental plaque
  • Pathogenesis
  • Disease
    • POD
    • Valvular endocarditis
  • Dx
haemophilus aegyptius
Haemophilus aegyptius
  • Purpuric Fever
    • South America
    • Children
    • Disease
      • Conjunctivitis 
      • N/V/D 
      • Shock 
      • Death
haemophilus ducreyi
Haemophilus ducreyi
  • STD
  • Pathogenicity
    • toxin
  • Disease
    • Genital ulcer (chancroid)
vibrios
Vibrios
  • Vibrio
  • Campylobacter
  • Helicobacter
vibrio
Vibrio
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
  • Agent: V. cholera
  • Epidemiology
    • carriers
    • Fecal contamination
      • Water
      • Food
  • Pathogenesis
    • Serotypes: O1 and O139
    • Adhere to intestinal mucosa
    • Toxin: Choleragen (from bacteriophage)
      • Subunit A
        • Activates adenylate cyclase
        • Hypersecretion of Cl- and H20
      • Subunit B
        • Binds to intestinal receptors
  • Disease
    • Muscle cramps
    • Profuse diarrhea
    • Circulatory shock and collapse
  • Dx: culture of feces, Agglutination Rxn
  • Tx: supportive; AB
  • Prevention: water sanitation
proteobacteria70
Proteobacteria
  • Epsilon
    • Campylobacter
    • Helicobacter
campylobacter
Campylobacter
  • Characteristics
    • GNR, curved
    • Capnophile
  • Agent: C. jejuni
  • Epidemiology
    • Source
      • GI animals
        • Birds
        • Cattle
      • Water
    • Transmission
      • Contaminated water
      • Undercooked food
      • Contact with infected animals
campylobacter72
Campylobacter
  • Pathogenesis
    • Invades SI
    • Exotoxin (similar to cholera toxin)
  • Disease
    • Gastroenteritis and ulceration
    • Bloody watery diarrhea
    • Endocarditis
    • Septic arthritis
    • Meningitis
  • Dx: Culture and Isolation
  • Tx: Supportive, AB: erythromycin
  • Prevention:
    • Hygiene
    • Proper food handling
      • Pasteurization
      • Cooking of meat
helicobacter campylobacter
Helicobacter (Campylobacter)
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
  • Agent: H. pylori
  • Epidemiology
    • Gastric mucosa (mucus)
    • Food-water: person-person
  • Pathogenesis
    • Adhesins: Fimbria
    • Enzymes
      • Urease
      • Proteases
      • Phospholipidase
      • Cytokines
    • Toxins: cytoxins
  • Diseases
    • Gastritis
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Gastric cancer
  • Dx: Gastric biopsy  culture
  • Tx:
    • Peptobismol
    • Metronidizole
    • Beta lactam AB
    • Prevacid
anaerobic gnr
Anaerobic GNR
  • Bacteroides
  • Prevotella
bacteroides fragilis
Bacteroides fragilis
  • Characteristics
    • GNR
    • Pleomorphic
    • anaerobic
  • Location
    • Normal GI microbiotica
  • Epidemiology
    • 85% of GI disease
  • Pathogenicity
    • Fimbria
    • Capsule
    • Inhibit lysosomes
  • Disease
    • Peritonitis (ruptured GI)
    • Pelvic Abscesses
    • Wound necrosis
provotella
Provotella
  • Characteristic
    • GNR
    • anaerobic
  • Location: normal flora
    • Urogenital
    • Respiratory
  • Epidemiology: opportunistic
  • Pathogenicity
    • Adhesins
    • Antiphagocytic capsules
    • Proteases
  • Disease
    • Sinusitis
    • OM
    • POD
    • PID