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Earth Exploration Satellite Service Spectrum-Regulatory Considerations Thomas vonDeak NASA Spectrum Management Office Glenn Research Center 216-433-3277 [email protected] July 16, 2002 Purpose of Presentation Purpose: Provide overview of NASA Spectrum Management function

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earth exploration satellite service spectrum regulatory considerations

Earth Exploration Satellite Service Spectrum-Regulatory Considerations

Thomas vonDeak

NASA Spectrum Management Office

Glenn Research Center

216-433-3277

[email protected]

July 16, 2002

purpose of presentation
Purpose of Presentation
  • Purpose:
  • Provide overview of NASA Spectrum Management function
  • Provide information regarding spectrum regulatory environment as it pertains to Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS)
  • Provide reference material to be used by designers of EESS systems
outline
Outline

Outline:

  • Purpose of Spectrum Management
  • RF Spectrum Regulatory Structure
  • Definition of Services Relevant to EESS
  • NASA Spectrum Management: Roles and Responsibilities
  • Overview of Spectrum Allocations Available for EESS
    • S-Band (Uplink:2025-2100 MHz, Forward:2025-2110 MHz)
    • X-Band (Downlink:8025-8400/8450-8500 MHz)
    • Ku-Band (Forward:13.75-14.0 GHz, Return:14.8-15.35 GHz)
    • Ka-Band (Downlink: 25.5-27 GHz, Forward: 22.55-23.55 GHz, Return: 25.25-27.5 GHz)
  • Annexes
    • On-Line Spectrum Management Resources
    • Power Flux Density (PFD) Limits: Band by Band
    • Footnotes of the frequency tables shown
purpose of spectrum management
Purpose of Spectrum Management

In General

  • Ensure that systems that use the radio frequency (RF) spectrum comply with national statutory and international treaty obligations
  • Ensure that a system in which time and money has been invested for development provides the required quality of service upon deployment and installation. Ensure that systems operate as intended -- they neither create more interference to other operating systems than is acceptable nor experience more interference from other operating systems than is acceptable.
  • Apply order to the use of the orbit/spectrum resource
  • Provide technical basis for coordination
  • Promote the efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum
  • Accommodate new services, applications, and technology
nasa spectrum management
NASA Spectrum Management

In addition to previous slide

  • Assign operating radio frequencies in accordance with national and international allocations, service requirements, and authorizations
  • Obtain Federal Government Certification and Frequency Authorization License for all NASA transmitters and receivers
  • Compliance with OMB A-11 assuring that proposed RF equipment have the proper authorization prior to purchase (Regulation on Government controlled systems).
  • Facilitate coordination of frequency assignments with other national and international agencies
  • Obtain Radio Frequency Interference protection on a National and International level
  • Protect the near-term and long-term national and international spectrum interests of NASA and their customers.
rf spectrum regulatory structure
RF Spectrum Regulatory Structure
  • Internationally, the use of the RF spectrum is governed by treaty, or on an exceptional basis, by agreements between countries
    • The treaty obligations are set forth in the Radio Regulations (RR), which are administered by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialized agency of the United Nations.
    • The ITU divides the RF spectrum into bands which are allocated to various classes of service, on a global basis, a regional basis (the ITU defines three Regions), or on a national basis (each administration can regulate the use of spectrum within its borders independent of the ITU).
rf spectrum regulatory structure continued
RF Spectrum Regulatory Structure(continued)
  • Nationally, in the United States and its possessions, the use of the RF spectrum is governed by law
    • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), acting under the authority of Congress, is responsible for the allocation and assignment of frequencies to non-Government users.
      • Non-government operators pursue licensing of their transmitters through the FCC.
    • The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is responsible for the allocation and assignment of frequencies to departments and agencies of the U.S. Government
      • The NTIA performs its functions through the assistance of the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC) and its subcommittees, of which NASA is an active member. The IRAC is responsible for maintaining the National Table of Frequency Allocations.
      • NASA commonly pursues its frequency requirements through the NTIA and IRAC for transmitters that NASA has direct control of (may be through lease arrangement).
rf spectrum regulatory structure continued8
RF Spectrum Regulatory Structure(continued)
  • In the US there are three types of spectrum administered by the FCC and the NTIA.
    • Non-Government
    • Government Only
    • Shared (Non-Government and Government)
  • FCC has the responsibility for licensing non-Government systems.
  • NTIA has the responsibility for licensing Government systems.
  • FCC and NTIA govern all spectrum together (for US and Possessions).
definition of relevant services
Definition of Relevant Services
  • Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (EESS)
    • A radiocommunication service between earth stations and one or more space stations, which may include links between space stations, in which:
      • information relating to the characteristics of the Earth and its natural phenomena, including data relating to the state of the environment, is obtained from active sensors or passive sensors on Earth satellites
      • similar information is collected from airborne or Earth-based platforms
      • information may be distributed to earth stations within the system concerned
      • platform interrogation may be included

This service may also include feeder links necessary for its operation.

  • Space Operation Service (SOS)
    • A radiocommunication service concerned exclusively with the operation of spacecraft, in particular space tracking, space telemetry and space telecommand
  • Inter-Satellite Service (ISS)
    • A radiocommunication service providing links between artificial satellites.
      • eg., a relay from a sensing satellite to TDRS would use an ISS allocated frequency.
comments regarding ldcm rfp
Comments Regarding LDCM RFP
  • The LDCM RFP directs the awardee to operate and own (control) the space assets.
  • Therefore, the awardee must pursue obtaining the necessary licensing through the FCC and international registration with the ITU through the FCC. International registration for systems is available only to Administrations and Sector Members of the ITU.
  • If proposed, use of US Government-Only Allocations would be obtained by the awardee operating through the FCC. The FCC would negotiate with the NTIA (using the procedures of the IRAC). There is no guarantee that licensing would be obtained.
regions defined in the itu r radio regulations
Regions Defined in the ITU-R Radio Regulations
  • The ITU-R Radio Regulations divides the world into three Regions
considerations for allocations in the s band
Considerations for Allocations in the S-Band
  • Typically used for TT&C
  • The 2 GHz band best accommodates low data rate users requiring a necessary bandwidth of 5 to 8 MHz or less (TBR)
  • Provides all-weather communications links, regardless of spacecraft orientation
  • Potential for increasing levels of RF interference as a result of more intense use by terrestrial services of shared bands and adjacent bands
  • Unwanted emissions in the SRS deep space bands (2110-2120 MHz and 2290-2300 MHz) should be controlled per the guidelines established in Recommendation ITU-R SA.1157
  • 2200-2290 MHz is available for Government use only. Very unlikely that EESS would be allowed access to this band for downlinks. (2285 –2290 MHz available for non-Government use through TDRSS)
s band allocations
S-Band Allocations

Note: 2200-2290 MHz is for Government use only in the US&P. Any use of this band in the US&P would have to be a Government controlled asset.

considerations for allocations in the x band
Considerations for Allocations in theX-Band
  • The 8025–8400 MHz band best accommodates low to moderate data rate EESS users with necessary bandwidths up to around 150 MHz (Typical but not mandatory-SFCG recommendation)
  • Unwanted emissions from Earth Exploration Satellite Servive (EESS) (space-to-Earth) transmitters into the adjacent SRS deep space band (8400-8450 MHz) should be controlled per the guidelines established in Recommendation ITU-R SA.1157
    • The transmission of 300 MHz in X-Band is technically possible but not encouraged due to the difficulty in coordinating with the other users in this band.
  • Subject to PFD limits in Regions 1 & 3 per ITU-R RR S5.462A. Coordination of EESS earth stations with fixed systems may be difficult, especially in some Region 1 and 3 countries
  • ITU-R studies are underway to determine suitable PFD limits on the emissions of EESS geostationary satellites in the 8025-8400 MHz band
considerations for allocations in the ku band
Considerations for Allocations in the Ku-Band
  • The allocation supports TDRSS Intersatellite Service (ISS) (13.775 GHz forward / 15.0034 GHz return) on a secondary basis
  • Ku-band allocations will remain secondary, except for forward links from particular TDRSS orbital locations with respect to Fixed-Satellite Service earth stations
  • NTIA and DoD have consistently urged NASA to vacate the Ku-band forward link band due to concerns of interference from the emissions of FSS Earth stations as more of these stations are brought into service. However, the US (primarily NASA) is working within the ITU-R JTG 4-7-8 to address the degree of protection and the amount of protected bandwidth for the forward link. The goal is to incorporate these new provisions in the RR at WRC-03.
considerations for allocations in the ka band
Considerations for Allocations in theKa-Band
  • The 22.55-23.55 GHz and 25.25-27.5 GHz bands are allocated to space-to-space links on a primary basis worldwide
  • The 25.5-27 GHz band is allocated to EESS (space-to-Earth) links on a primary basis worldwide
  • Bandwidth allocations in the Ka-Band allow for higher data rate telemetry transmissions (50 Msps and above)
  • Narrower antenna beamwidths reduce potential for interference
  • Ka-Band non-Government is secondary in the US
ka band allocations
Ka-Band Allocations

*The EESS allocation for this band is under consideration for change in the US. NASA anticipates EESS to have primary status when the US process is complete and further anticipates that this will occur before the end of the year 2003.

annexes
Annexes
  • On-Line Spectrum Management Resources
  • Power Flux Density (PFD) Limits: Band by Band
  • ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables
  • US Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables
landsat 7 international ground station network
Landsat 7 International Ground Station Network

This figure indicates most of the current Wideband Downlink facilities available globally.

on line spectrum management resources
On-Line Spectrum Management Resources
  • NTIA Office of Spectrum ManagementWeb Site
    • http://www.ntia.doc.gov
    • NTIA Manual of Regulations & Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management available for download in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html

Chapter 4. Allocations, Allotments and Plans

Chapter 5. Spectrum Standards

Chapter 10. Procedures for the Review of Telecommunication Systems for Frequency Availability and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

  • ITU Web Site
    • http://www.itu.int
    • Overview of the ITU Radio Regulationshttp://www.itu.int/sns/radreg.html
  • FCC Web Site
    • http://www.fcc.gov/
    • FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations http://www.fcc.gov/oet/spectrum/table/fcctable.pdf
power flux density pfd limits band by band
Power Flux Density (PFD) Limits Band by Band
  • PFD in any 4 kHz band within the bands 2025 - 2110 MHz and 2200-2290 MHz:

r = -154 0 d < 5o

r = -154 + 0.5 (d - 5) 5od < 25o

r = -144 25od < 90o

  • PFD in any 4 kHz band within the band 8025-8500 MHz:

r = -150 0 d < 5o

r = -150 + 0.5 (d - 5) 5od < 25o

r = -140 25od < 90o

  • PFD in any 4 kHz band within the band 13.75-15.3.0 GHz except in the bands 14.3 - 14.4 GHz and 14.47 - 14.5 GHz. (see Recommendation ITU-R SA.510):

r = -148 0 d < 5o

r = -148 + 0.5 (d - 5) 5od < 25o

r = -138 25od < 90o

  • PFD in any 1 MHz band within the bands 22.55-23.55 GHz and 25.25-27.5 GHz:

r = -115 0 d < 5o

r = -115 + 0.5 (d - 5) 5od < 25o

      • = -105 25od < 90o

Units for r are dB(W/m2) d is the elevation angle

itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables
5.149 In making assignments to stations of other services to which the bands:

13360-13410 kHz,

25550-25670 kHz,

37.5-38.25 MHz,

73-74.6 MHz in Regions 1 and 3,

150.05-153 MHz in Region 1,

322-328.6 MHz,

406.1-410 MHz,

608-614 MHz in Regions 1 and 3,

1330-1400 MHz,

1610.6-1613.8 MHz,

1660-1670 MHz,

1718.8-1722.2 MHz,

2655-2690 MHz,

3260-3267 MHz,

3332-3339 MHz,

3345.8-3352.5 MHz,

4825-4835 MHz,

are allocated, administrations are urged to take all practicable steps to protect the radio astronomy service from harmful interference. Emissions from spaceborne or airborne stations can be particularly serious sources of interference to the radio astronomy service (see Nos. 4.5 and 4.6 and Article 29).     (WRC‑2000)

76-86 GHz,

92-94 GHz,

94.1-100 GHz,

102-109.5 GHz,

111.8-114.25 GHz,

128.33-128.59 GHz,

129.23-129.49 GHz,

130-134 GHz,

136-148.5 GHz,

151.5-158.5 GHz,

168.59-168.93 GHz,

171.11-171.45 GHz,

172.31-172.65 GHz,

173.52-173.85 GHz,

195.75-196.15 GHz,

209-226 GHz,

241-250 GHz,

252-275 GHz

4950-4990 MHz,

4990-5000 MHz,

6650-6675.2 MHz,

10.6-10.68 GHz,

14.47-14.5 GHz,

22.01-22.21 GHz,

22.21-22.5 GHz,

22.81-22.86 GHz,

23.07-23.12 GHz,

31.2-31.3 GHz,

31.5-31.8 GHz in Regions 1 and 3,

36.43-36.5 GHz,

42.5-43.5 GHz,

42.77-42.87 GHz,

43.07-43.17 GHz,

43.37-43.47 GHz,

48.94-49.04 GHz,

ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables
itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables continued
ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

5.150 The following bands:

13 553-13 567 kHz (centre frequency 13 560 kHz),

26 957-27 283 kHz (centre frequency 27 120 kHz),

40.66-40.70 MHz (centre frequency 40.68 MHz),

902-928 MHz in Region 2 (centre frequency 915 MHz),

2 400-2 500 MHz (centre frequency 2 450 MHz),

5 725-5 875 MHz (centre frequency 5 800 MHz), and

24-24.25 GHz (centre frequency 24.125 GHz)

are also designated for industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) applications. Radiocommunication services operating within these bands must accept harmful interference which may be caused by these applications. ISM equipment operating in these bands is subject to the provisions of No. 15.13.

5.339 The bands 1 370-1 400 MHz, 2 640-2 655 MHz, 4 950-4 990 MHz and 15.20-15.35 GHz are also allocated to the space research (passive) and earth exploration-satellite (passive) services on a secondary basis.

itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables continued27
ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

5.340 All emissions are prohibited in the following bands:

1 400-1 427 MHz,

2 690-2 700 MHz, except those provided for by Nos. 5.421 and 5.422,

10.68-10.7 GHz, except those provided for by No. 5.483,

15.35-15.4 GHz, except those provided for by No. 5.511,

23.6-24 GHz,

31.3-31.5 GHz,

31.5-31.8 GHz, in Region 2,

48.94-49.04 GHz, from airborne stations,

50.2-50.4 GHz2, except those provided for by No. 5.555A,

52.6-54.25 GHz,

86-92 GHz,

100-102 GHz,

109.5-111.8 GHz,

114.25-116 GHz,

148.5-151.5 GHz,

164-167 GHz, except those provided for by No. 5.563,

190-191.8 GHz,

200-209 GHz,

226-231.5 GHz,

250-252 GHz. (WRC‑2000)

5.391 In making assignments to the mobile service in the bands 2 025-2 110 MHz and 2 200-2 290 MHz, administrations shall not introduce high-density mobile systems, as described in Recommendation ITU-R SA.1154,and shall take that Recommendation into account for the introduction of any other type of mobile system.    (WRC-97)

itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables continued28
ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

5.392 Administrations are urged to take all practicable measures to ensure that space-to-space transmissions between two or more non-geostationary satellites, in the space research, space operations and Earth exploration-satellite services in the bands 2 025-2 110 MHz and 2 200-2 290 MHz, shall not impose any constraints on Earth-to-space, space-to-Earth and other space-to-space transmissions of those services and in those bands between geostationary and non-geostationary satellites.

5.462A In Regions 1 and 3 (except for Japan), in the band 8 025-8 400 MHz, the earth exploration-satellite service using geostationary satellites shall not produce a power flux-density in excess of the following provisional values for angles of arrival (), without the consent of the affected administration:

–174 dB(W/m2) in a 4 kHz band for 0 5

–174 + 0.5 ( – 5) dB(W/m2) in a 4 kHz band for 5 25

–164 dB(W/m2) in a 4 kHz band for 25 90

These values are subject to study under Resolution 124 (WRC-97)*.     (WRC-97)

5.463 Aircraft stations are not permitted to transmit in the band 8 025-8 400 MHz.     (WRC-97)

5.499 Additional allocation:  in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, the band 13.25-14 GHz is also allocated to the fixed service on a primary basis.

5.500 Additional allocation:  in Algeria, Angola, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Morocco, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Syria, Senegal, Singapore, Sudan, Chad and Tunisia, the band 13.4-14 GHz is also allocated to the fixed and mobile services on a primary basis.     (WRC‑2000)

5.501 Additional allocation:  in Austria, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Japan, Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, the United Kingdom and Turkmenistan, the band 13.4-14 GHz is also allocated to the radionavigation service on a primary basis.     (WRC‑2000)

itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables continued29
ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

5.502 In the band 13.75-14 GHz, an earth station in the fixed-satellite service shall have a minimum antenna diameter of 4.5 m and the e.i.r.p. of any emission should be at least 68 dBW and should not exceed 85 dBW. In addition the e.i.r.p., averaged over one second, radiated by a station in the radiolocation or radionavigation services shall not exceed 59 dBW. The protection of assignments to receiving space stations in the fixed-satellite service operating with earth stations that, individually, have an e.i.r.p. of less than 68 dBW shall not impose constraints on the operation of the radiolocation and radionavigation stations operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations. No. 5.43A does not apply. See Resolution 733 (WRC‑2000).     (WRC‑2000)

5.503 In the band 13.75-14 GHz, geostationary space stations in the space research service for which information for advance publication has been received by the Bureau prior to 31 January 1992 shall operate on an equal basis with stations in the fixed-satellite service; after that date, new geostationary space stations in the space research service will operate on a secondary basis. Until those geostationary space stations in the space research service for which information for advance publication has been received by the Bureau prior to 31 January 1992 cease to operate in this band:

– the e.i.r.p. density of emissions from any earth station in the fixed-satellite service operating with a space station in geostationary-satellite orbit shall not exceed 71 dBW in the 6 MHz band from 13.772 to 13.778 GHz;

– the e.i.r.p. density of emissions from any earth station in the fixed-satellite service operating with a space station in non-geostationary-satellite orbit shall not exceed 51 dBW in the 6 MHz band from 13.772 to 13.778 GHz.

Automatic power control may be used to increase the e.i.r.p. density in the 6 MHz band in this frequency range to compensate for rain attenuation, to the extent that the power flux-density at the fixed-satellite service space station does not exceed the value resulting from use by an earth station of an e.i.r.p. of 71 dBW or 51 dBW, as appropriate, in the 6 MHz band in clear-sky conditions.     (WRC‑2000)

5.503A Until 1 January 2000, stations in the fixed-satellite service shall not cause harmful interference to non-geostationary space stations in the space research and Earth exploration-satellite services. After that date, these non-geostationary space stations will operate on a secondary basis in relation to the fixed-satellite service. Additionally, when planning earth stations in the fixed-satellite service to be brought into service between 1 January 2000 and 1 January 2001, in order to accommodate the needs of spaceborne precipitation radars operating in the band 13.793-13.805 GHz, advantage should be taken of the consultation process and the information given in Recommendation ITU-R SA.1071.

itu r footnotes referenced in previous tables continued30
ITU-R Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

5.510 The use of the band 14.5-14.8 GHz by the fixed-satellite service (Earth‑to‑space) is limited to feeder links for the broadcasting-satellite service. This use is reserved for countries outside Europe.

5.532 The use of the band 22.21-22.5 GHz by the Earth exploration-satellite (passive) and space research (passive) services shall not impose constraints upon the fixed and mobile, except aeronautical mobile, services.

5.536 Use of the 25.25-27.5 GHz band by the inter-satellite service is limited to space research and Earth exploration-satellite applications, and also transmissions of data originating from industrial and medical activities in space.

5.536A Administrations installing Earth exploration-satellite service earth stations cannot claim protection from stations in the fixed and mobile services operated by neighbouring administrations. In addition, earth stations operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service should take into account Recommendation ITU‑R SA.1278.     (WRC‑2000)

5.536B In Germany, Saudi Arabia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Korea (Rep. of), Denmark, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway, Oman, Uganda, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Syria, Slovakia, the Czech Rep., Romania, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe, earth stations operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service in the band 25.5-27 GHz shall not claim protection from, or constrain the use and deployment of, stations of the fixed and mobile services.     (WRC-97)

us footnotes referenced in previous tables
US Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables

G59--In the bands 902-928 MHz, 3100-3300 MHz, 3500-3700 MHz, 5250-5350 MHz, 8500-9000 MHz, 9200-9300 MHz, 13.4-14.0 GHz, 15.7-17.7 GHz and 24.05-24.25 GHz, all Government non-military radiolocation shall be secondary to military radiolocation, except in the subband 15.7-16.2 GHz airport surface detection equipment (ASDE) is permitted on a co-equal basis subject to coordination with the military departments

G104--In the bands 7450-7550 and 8175-8215 MHz, it is agreed that although the military space radio communication systems, which include earth stations near the proposed meteorological-satellite installations will precede the meteorological-satellite installations, engineering adjustments to either the military or the meteorological-satellite systems or both will be made as mutually required to assure compatble operations of the systems concerned.

G117--In the bands 7250-7750,7900-8400 MHz and 17.8-21.2, 30-31, 39.5-40.5, 43.5-45.5 and 50.4-51.4 GHz the Government fixed-satellite and mobile-satellite services are limited to military systems.

US90--In the band 2025-2110 MHz Earth-to-space and space-to-space transmissions may be authorized in the space research and earth exploration-satellite services subject to such conditions as may be applied on a case-by-case basis. Such transmissions shall not cause harmful interference to non-Government stations operating in accordance with the Table of Frequency Allocations. All space-to-space transmission reaching the earth's surface shall adhere to a power flux density of between -144 and -154 dBw­/m2/4 kHz depending on the angle of arrival per ITU Radio Regulation 2557 and shall not cause harmful interference to the other space services.

US110--In the frequency bands 3100-3300 MHz, 3500-3700 MHz, 5250-5350 MHz, 8500-9000 MHz, 9200-9300 MHz, 9500-10000 MHz, 13.4-14.0 GHz, 15.7-17.3 GHz, 24.05-24.25 GHz and 33.4-36 GHz, the non-Government radiolocation service shall be secondary to the Government radiolocation service and to airborne doppler radars at 8800 MHz, and shall provide protection to airport surface detection equipment (ASDE) operating between 15.7-16.2 GHz

us footnotes referenced in previous tables continued
US Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

US211--In the bands 1670-1690, 5000-5250 MHz, and 10.7-11.7, 15.1365-15.35, 15.4-15.7, 22.5-22.55, 24-24.05, 31.0-31.3, 31.8-32, 40.5-42.5, 84-86, 102-105, 116-126, 151-164, 176.5-182, 185-190, 231-235, 252-265 GHz, applicants for airborne or space station assignments are urged to take all practicable steps to protect radio astronomy observations in the adjacent bands from harmful interference; however, US74 applies.

US222--In the band 2025-2035 MHz Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Earth stations in the Space Research and Earth Exploration-Satellite Services may be authorized on a co-equal basis to use the frequency band 2025-2035 MHz for Earth-to-space transmissions for tracking, telemetry, and telecommand at the sites listed below:

Wallops Is., VA., 37o50'48"N 75o­27'33"W.

Seattle, WA., 47o34'15"N 122o33'10"W.

Honolulu, HI., 21o21'12"N 157o­52'36"W.

US246--No stations will be authorized to transmit in the bands 608-614 MHz, 1400-1427 MHz, 1660.5-1668.4 MHz, 2690-2700 MHz, 4990-5000 MHz, 10.68-10.70 GHz, 15.35-15.40 GHz, 23.6-24.0 GHz, 31.3-31.8 GHz, 51.4-54.25 GHz, 58.2-59.0 GHz, 64-65 GHz, 86-92 GHz, 100-102 GHz, 105-116 GHz, 164-168 GHz, 182-185 GHz and 217-231 GHz

US258--In the band 8025-8400 MHz, the non-Government earth exploration-satellite service (space-to-Earth) is allocated on a primary basis. Authorizations are subject to a case-by-case electromagnetic compatibility analysis.

US263--In the frequency bands 21.2-21.4, 22.21-22.5, 36-37, 50.2-50.4, 54.25-58.2, 116-126, 150-151, 174.5-176.5, 200-202 and 235-238 GHz, the Space Research and the Earth Exploration-Satellite Services shall not receive protection from the Fixed and Mobile Services operating in accordance with the Table of Frequency Allocations.

us footnotes referenced in previous tables continued33
US Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

US303--In the band 2285-2290 MHz, non-Federal government space stations in the space research, space operations and earth exploration-satellite services may be authorized to transmit to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System subject to such condi­tions as may be applied on a case-by-case basis. Such transmissions shall not cause harmful interference to authorized Federal government stations. The power flux density at the Earth's surface from such non-Government stations shall not exceed -144 to -154 dBW/m2/4 kHz, depending on angle of arrival, in accordance with ITU Radio Regulation S21.16.

US337--In the band 13.75-13.80 GHz, earth stations in the fixed-satellite service shall be coordinated on a case-by-case basis through the frequency assignment subcommittee in order to minimize harmful interference to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System's forward space-to-space link (TDRSS forward link-to-LEO).

US346— Except as provided by footnote US222, the use of the band 2025-2110 MHz by the Government space operation service (Earth-to-space), Earth exploration-satellite service (Earth-to-space), and space research service (Earth-to-space) shall not constrain the deployment of the Television Broadcast Auxiliary Service, the Cable Television Relay Service, or the Local Television Transmission Service. To facilitate compatible operations between non-Government terrestrial receiving stations at fixed sites and Government earth station transmitters, coordination is required. To facilitate compatible operations between non-government terrestrial transmitting stations and Government spacecraft receivers, the terrestrial transmitters shall not be high-density systems (see Recommendations ITU-R SA.1154 and ITU-R F.1247).

US347— In the band 2025-2110 MHz, non-Government Earth-to-space and space-to-space transmissions may be authorized in the space research and Earth exploration-satellite services subject to such conditions as may be applied on a case-by-case basis. Such transmissions shall not cause harmful interference to Government and non-Government stations operating in accordance with the Table of Frequency Allocations.

us footnotes referenced in previous tables continued34
US Footnotes Referenced in Previous Tables (continued)

US356-- In the band 13.75-14 GHz, an earth station in the fixed-satellite service shall have a minimum antenna diameter of 4.5 m and the e.i.r.p. of any emission should be at least 68 dBW and should not exceed 85 dBW. In addition the e.i.r.p., averaged over one second, radiated by a station in the radiolocation service towards the geostationary-satellite orbit shall not exceed 59 dBW. Receiving space stations in the fixed-satellite service shall not claim protection from radiolocation transmitting stations operating in accordance with the United States Table of Frequency Allocations. ITU Radio Regulation No. S5.43A does not apply

US357-- In the band 13.75-14 GHz, geostationary space stations in the space research service for which information for advance publication has been received by the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau (Bureau) prior to 31 January 1992 shall operate on an equal basis with stations in the fixed-satellite service; after that date, new geostationary space stations in the space research service will operate on a secondary basis. Until those geostationary space stations in the space research service for which information for advance publication has been received by the Bureau prior to 31 January 1992 cease to operate in this band:

a. The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from any earth station in the fixed-satellite service operating with a space station in geostationary-satellite orbit shall not exceed 71 dBW in any 6 MHz band from 13.77 to 13.78 GHz;

b. The e.i.r.p. density of emissions from any earth station in the fixed-satellite service operating with a space station in non-geostationary-satellite orbit shall not exceed 51 dBW in any 6 MHz band from 13.77 to 13.78 GHz.

Automatic power control may be used to increase the e.i.r.p. density in any 6 MHz band in these frequency ranges to compensate for rain attenuation, to the extent that the power flux-density at the fixed-satellite service space station does not exceed the value resulting from use by an earth station of an e.i.r.p. of 71 dBW or 51 dBW, as appropriate, in any 6 MHz band in clear-sky conditions.

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