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Cultured Dairy Foods. Cultured Dairy Products. Bovine milk suitable for microbial fermentation contains 5% lactose, 3.3% protein, pH6.6-6.7, a w ~1.0. Cultured Dairy Products. Evolved on every continent Easy to produce, good shelf-lives, free of harmful substances, pleasant sensory appeal

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cultured dairy products
Cultured Dairy Products
  • Bovine milk suitable for microbial fermentation
    • contains 5% lactose, 3.3% protein, pH6.6-6.7, aw~1.0
cultured dairy products3
Cultured Dairy Products
  • Evolved on every continent
    • Easy to produce, good shelf-lives, free of harmful substances, pleasant sensory appeal
    • Yogurt like products
      • Dahi (india), Jaban (Egypt, Lebanon), Jugar (turkey)
    • Kefir and koumiss-made with lactose-fermenting yeasts in addition to lactic acid bacteria
      • Contain alcohol
consumption of cultured dairy products
Consumption of Cultured Dairy Products
  • Most popular cultured dairy products in the US
    • Yogurt: >50% of all cultured dairy products (mostly non-fat or low fat)
    • Sour cream (and sour cream-based dips): increasing
    • Cultured buttermilk: decreasing
  • US consumption much less than EU
    • Catch on new trends
probiotics and prebiotics
Probiotics and Prebiotics
  • Probiotics
    • Live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (WHO)
      • Live and sufficient amount
      • Health benefit beyond GI tract
      • Suggested health benefits
        • Reduce blood cholesterol
        • Maintain intestinal health
        • Alleviate intestinal bowel diseases
        • Modulate immune system
        • Reduce incidence of GI infections
        • Reduce incidence of urinary and vaginal infections
        • Alleviate lactose intolerance
        • Anti-cancinogenic and anti-tumorogenic
        • Reduce incidence and severity of diarrheal diseases
probiotics and prebiotics6
Probiotics and Prebiotics
  • Prebiotics
    • Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and then improves host health (Gilbson and Roberfroid, 1995)
      • Polysaccharides or oligosaccharides (Fig 1)
        • FOS (fructooligosaccharides)
        • GOS (galactooligosaccharides)
          • Resemble the oligosaccharides found in human milk
          • May promote the growth of bifidobacteria in nursed infants
common probiotics
Common probiotics
  • As culture adjunct intend to promote health, instead of fermentation
    • Lactobacillus acidophilus-~80% yogurt in the US
    • Bifidobacterium
    • Both in yogurt and other cultured and non-cultured dairy products
      • Some strains also involved in fermentation
        • Yakult-Japanese product made using a human GI isolate of Lb. casei (strain Shirota)
        • Cultura-a European “bioyogurt” made with a human isolate of Lb. casei F19
      • Unfermented products as carriers of probiotics
        • Sweet Acidophilus Milk
  • Table 4.2
fermentation principles
Fermentation Principles
  • Milk and LAB culture (Table 4.3)
    • Cultured versus “directly set”
  • Functions
    • Lactose
    • Precipitate casein (pH4.6)
    • Flavor compounds
    • Syneresis
      • Separation of water from the coagulated milk
      • Considered unfavorable; to reduce,
        • Increase milk solids
        • heat well above pateurization temp to denature whey proteins
        • Incorporate stabilizers
        • Using strains produce exopolysaccharide
          • “Ropy” strain-EPS released or dis-attached
          • EPS remains attached to the cells surface
yogurt cultures
Yogurt Cultures
  • S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
  • 1:1 ratio
  • Synergistic growth
    • S. thermophilus growth first, use free aa and small peptides in milk, lower pH etc, preferred environment for Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
    • Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus proteolysis helps S. thermophilus to grow
    • Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produce more acid, S. thermophilus will decrease
  • So the cultures are grown separately, harvested and mixed
frozen yogurt and other yogurt products
Frozen Yogurt and Other Yogurt Products
  • Frozen yogurt
    • No federal standard of identify
    • Some states have their own definitions
    • Marketing purpose
    • Minnesota definition
      • “Frozen dairy products made from a mix containing safe and suitable ingredients including, but not limited to, milk products. All or a part of the milk products must be cultured with a characterizing live bacterial culture that contains the lactic acid producing bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and may contain other lactic acid producing bacteria.”
    • Some stated require minimum acidity, ranging from 0.3% to 0.5%
cultured buttermilk
Cultured Buttermilk
  • Buttermilk is the fluid remaining after cream is churned into butter
    • Thin, watery liquid
    • Rich in phospholipids
    • Rarely consumed as a fluid drink, but good source of natural emulsifiers
    • Typically spray dried and used as an ingredient in processed food products
  • Cultured buttermilk
    • Skim or low-fat milk fermented by suitable LAB
    • Butter granules or flakes are occasionally added to provide butter flavor and mouth feel
cultured buttermilk manufacture
Cultured Buttermilk Manufacture
  • Fig. 4-5
  • Milk
  • Heat
  • Cool and inoculate mesophilic starter culture
  • Cultures
    • Acid producing: flavor producing ~5:1
    • Acid producer: homolactic L. lactis subsp. lactis or cremoris
    • Flovor producer: L. lactis diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, or Leuc. lactis (hetero)
    • Citrate fermentation
sour cream
Sour Cream
  • Same culture used for cultured buttermilk
  • Use cream instead of milk
  • Cream pasteurized but not extend as for buttermilk or yogurt
  • Cream homogenized
  • Starting material in the US 18-20% cream, or low fat version (10%)
  • Fig 4-7
kefir
Kefir
  • One of the most popular cultured dairy products in Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  • Kefir grain added as insoluble particles
  • Retrieved after fermentation by filtration
  • LAB and yeast
  • Contain as much as 2% ethanol
  • US has to be lower or non-ethanol producers
  • Fig 4-8, Table 1