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Input, Output, and Storage & Introduction to Basic Computer Architecture Week 2. COMPUTER PLATFORMS. Week 2. Input, Output, Storage Devices Media Computer Architecture The CPU ALU Control unit Registers Buses Von-Neumann. Input. Sending information to the computer

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Computer platforms

Input, Output, and Storage

&

Introduction to Basic Computer Architecture

Week 2

COMPUTER PLATFORMS

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Week 2
Week 2

  • Input, Output, Storage

    • Devices

    • Media

  • Computer Architecture

    • The CPU

      • ALU

      • Control unit

      • Registers

    • Buses

    • Von-Neumann

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Input
Input

  • Sending information to the computer

  • Issuing the computer with a command

  • Devices for Input

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Scanner

    • Camera

    • Joystick / Gamepad

    • Microphone (Transducer)

    • Lightpen

    • Barcode Reader

    • Fingerprint Scanner

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Output
Output

  • Returning the result of a process

  • Querying the user

  • Providing the user with feedback

  • Devices for Output

    • Monitor

    • Printer

    • Plotter

    • Digital Projector

    • Speakers

    • Synthesiser

    • Robot / Machine

    • LED’s

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Storage
Storage

  • Place to keep important data

  • Kept on a storage medium

    • Magnetic, Optical, physical

  • Devices for Storage

    • Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

    • Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)

    • Zip Drive

    • Tape Drive

    • CD / DVD (ROM, RW, R)

    • Memory Chips (USB sticks, Flash memory)

    • Punched Cards

    • Barcodes

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Computer architecture

BIOS

RAM

CPU

Graphic Card

Sound Card

Ports

Power

Supply

Hard Disk

Drive

Floppy

Disk Drive

Computer Architecture

  • What’s in the box?

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Ports
Ports

  • Physical interface or socket to connect a device to a computer

  • Interfaced to the computer’s motherboard

  • Two main types of port:

    • Serial

      • Data is transferred in streams

      • One bit after the other

    • Parallel

      • Data bits are transferred alongside each other in waves (concurrently)

  • Common ports

    • USB (Universal Serial Bus)

    • Serial (9-pin) & (15-pin ‘game’ port)

    • Parallel (25-pin)

    • SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Sound graphic cards
Sound & Graphic Cards

  • Interface directly onto the motherboard

  • Graphics Card usually uses the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)

    • Provides basic and / or advanced graphics capability

    • Often have graphics co-processors

    • On-board VRAM (Video RAM)

  • Sound card uses a PCI (peripheral Component Interconnect) slot

    • Allows computer to output sound to speakers and record sounds.

    • Adds MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) capability

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Hard disk drives hdd

Disk Platter

Read/Write Heads

Spindle

Hard Disk Drives (HDD)

  • Magnetic storage medium

  • Uses rotating metal disks (platters)

  • Use read and write ‘heads’ to store and retrieve information

  • Large storage capacity

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Floppy disk drive fdd
Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)

  • Magnetic storage medium

  • Uses rotating single, thin magnetic disk

  • Requires a drive to read the disk, which has the read/write heads

  • Small storage capacity

    • Typically 1.44 Mb (High Density 3.5”)

  • Portable

  • Cheap

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks

  • How the disk works:

Cluster

Sector

Track

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


BIOS

  • Basic Input Output System (BIOS)

  • Provides the computer with basic functionality

  • Built-in software, no disk access

    • Usually a ROM chip on the motherboard

  • Common BIOS manufacturers

    • Award, Compaq, HP

  • Settings are saved to a CMOS chip, powered by a battery

    • CMOS = Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Random access memory ram
Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Used to store instructions that are in current use

  • Two main types of RAM:

    • Static RAM (SRAM)

      • reliable

      • does not need to be constantly refreshed

      • fast

      • expensive

    • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

      • more common

      • slower than SRAM

      • cheap

      • must be constantly refreshed

    • Both volatile’ (contents lost when power is off)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Random access memory ram1
Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • Cache Memory

    • Essentially RAM that the CPU can access quickly

      • Is physically close to the processor

    • Usually always SRAM

      • Therefore, small sizes are common compared to size of RAM

    • Two levels of cache memory

      • Level 1 - Situated inside the processor

        • Commonly 512 kb

      • Level 2 - A separate RAM chip on the motherboard or in expansion slot

        • Commonly 1024 kb (1 Mb)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003



Central processing unit cpu

ALU

Control

Unit

CPU

High Speed Registers

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • CPU has three important parts:

    • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

    • Control Unit

    • Registers

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Central processing unit cpu1
Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Arithmetic & Logic Unit

    • Handles mathematical and logical functions (numerical)

    • Deals with non-numerical logic operations

  • Control Unit

    • Handles all low-level hardware operations

      • Input & Output Devices and CPU

    • Carries out instruction handling

      • Fetch Execute Cycle

  • Registers

    • Storage areas within the CPU

    • Accessible at high speed

    • Anything for processing must be kept in a register

    • Can also hold the address of a memory location

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Buses
Buses

  • A collection of wires which connects together the internal components of the computer

    • Allows transfer of data

  • Main types of bus:

    • Data bus

      • Carries actual data bits (information)

    • Address bus

      • Transfers locations where data should be sent

    • Control bus

      • Carries status information

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Buses1

CPU

INPUT

OUTPUT

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

MEMORY

Buses

  • How buses fit into the computer system

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Computer architecture1
Computer Architecture

  • The Von Neumann Model

    • 1903 - 1957

    • Mathematician

    • Quantum physicist

    • Worked on ENIAC

      • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

      • Major development in computer technology

    • Responsible for developing the Fetch Execute Cycle, and his namesake -

      • ‘Von Neumann Model’

    • The original computer geek?!

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


Week 21
Week 2

  • What we know now!

    • Input, Output, Storage

      • Devices

      • Media

        • HDD

        • FDD

        • How magnetic Disks work

    • Computer Architecture

      • BIOS

      • Ports

      • The CPU

        • ALU

        • Control unit

        • Registers

      • Buses

      • Von-Neumann

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003


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