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  1. Input, Output, and Storage & Introduction to Basic Computer Architecture Week 2 COMPUTER PLATFORMS Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  2. Week 2 • Input, Output, Storage • Devices • Media • Computer Architecture • The CPU • ALU • Control unit • Registers • Buses • Von-Neumann Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  3. Input • Sending information to the computer • Issuing the computer with a command • Devices for Input • Keyboard • Mouse • Scanner • Camera • Joystick / Gamepad • Microphone (Transducer) • Lightpen • Barcode Reader • Fingerprint Scanner Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  4. Output • Returning the result of a process • Querying the user • Providing the user with feedback • Devices for Output • Monitor • Printer • Plotter • Digital Projector • Speakers • Synthesiser • Robot / Machine • LED’s Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  5. Storage • Place to keep important data • Kept on a storage medium • Magnetic, Optical, physical • Devices for Storage • Hard Disk Drive (HDD) • Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) • Zip Drive • Tape Drive • CD / DVD (ROM, RW, R) • Memory Chips (USB sticks, Flash memory) • Punched Cards • Barcodes Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  6. BIOS RAM CPU Graphic Card Sound Card Ports Power Supply Hard Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive Computer Architecture • What’s in the box? Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  7. Ports • Physical interface or socket to connect a device to a computer • Interfaced to the computer’s motherboard • Two main types of port: • Serial • Data is transferred in streams • One bit after the other • Parallel • Data bits are transferred alongside each other in waves (concurrently) • Common ports • USB (Universal Serial Bus) • Serial (9-pin) & (15-pin ‘game’ port) • Parallel (25-pin) • SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  8. Sound & Graphic Cards • Interface directly onto the motherboard • Graphics Card usually uses the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) • Provides basic and / or advanced graphics capability • Often have graphics co-processors • On-board VRAM (Video RAM) • Sound card uses a PCI (peripheral Component Interconnect) slot • Allows computer to output sound to speakers and record sounds. • Adds MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) capability Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  9. Disk Platter Read/Write Heads Spindle Hard Disk Drives (HDD) • Magnetic storage medium • Uses rotating metal disks (platters) • Use read and write ‘heads’ to store and retrieve information • Large storage capacity Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  10. Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) • Magnetic storage medium • Uses rotating single, thin magnetic disk • Requires a drive to read the disk, which has the read/write heads • Small storage capacity • Typically 1.44 Mb (High Density 3.5”) • Portable • Cheap Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  11. Magnetic Disks • How the disk works: Cluster Sector Track Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  12. BIOS • Basic Input Output System (BIOS) • Provides the computer with basic functionality • Built-in software, no disk access • Usually a ROM chip on the motherboard • Common BIOS manufacturers • Award, Compaq, HP • Settings are saved to a CMOS chip, powered by a battery • CMOS = Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  13. Random Access Memory (RAM) • Used to store instructions that are in current use • Two main types of RAM: • Static RAM (SRAM) • reliable • does not need to be constantly refreshed • fast • expensive • Dynamic RAM (DRAM) • more common • slower than SRAM • cheap • must be constantly refreshed • Both volatile’ (contents lost when power is off) Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  14. Random Access Memory (RAM) • Cache Memory • Essentially RAM that the CPU can access quickly • Is physically close to the processor • Usually always SRAM • Therefore, small sizes are common compared to size of RAM • Two levels of cache memory • Level 1 - Situated inside the processor • Commonly 512 kb • Level 2 - A separate RAM chip on the motherboard or in expansion slot • Commonly 1024 kb (1 Mb) Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  15. Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  16. ALU Control Unit CPU High Speed Registers Central Processing Unit (CPU) • CPU has three important parts: • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) • Control Unit • Registers Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  17. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Arithmetic & Logic Unit • Handles mathematical and logical functions (numerical) • Deals with non-numerical logic operations • Control Unit • Handles all low-level hardware operations • Input & Output Devices and CPU • Carries out instruction handling • Fetch Execute Cycle • Registers • Storage areas within the CPU • Accessible at high speed • Anything for processing must be kept in a register • Can also hold the address of a memory location Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  18. Buses • A collection of wires which connects together the internal components of the computer • Allows transfer of data • Main types of bus: • Data bus • Carries actual data bits (information) • Address bus • Transfers locations where data should be sent • Control bus • Carries status information Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  19. CPU INPUT OUTPUT DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS MEMORY Buses • How buses fit into the computer system Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  20. Computer Architecture • The Von Neumann Model • 1903 - 1957 • Mathematician • Quantum physicist • Worked on ENIAC • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer • Major development in computer technology • Responsible for developing the Fetch Execute Cycle, and his namesake - • ‘Von Neumann Model’ • The original computer geek?! Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

  21. Week 2 • What we know now! • Input, Output, Storage • Devices • Media • HDD • FDD • How magnetic Disks work • Computer Architecture • BIOS • Ports • The CPU • ALU • Control unit • Registers • Buses • Von-Neumann Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003