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Input, Output, and Storage & Introduction to Basic Computer Architecture Week 2. COMPUTER PLATFORMS. Week 2. Input, Output, Storage Devices Media Computer Architecture The CPU ALU Control unit Registers Buses Von-Neumann. Input. Sending information to the computer

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computer platforms

Input, Output, and Storage

&

Introduction to Basic Computer Architecture

Week 2

COMPUTER PLATFORMS

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

week 2
Week 2
  • Input, Output, Storage
    • Devices
    • Media
  • Computer Architecture
    • The CPU
      • ALU
      • Control unit
      • Registers
    • Buses
    • Von-Neumann

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

input
Input
  • Sending information to the computer
  • Issuing the computer with a command
  • Devices for Input
      • Keyboard
      • Mouse
      • Scanner
      • Camera
      • Joystick / Gamepad
      • Microphone (Transducer)
      • Lightpen
      • Barcode Reader
      • Fingerprint Scanner

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

output
Output
  • Returning the result of a process
  • Querying the user
  • Providing the user with feedback
  • Devices for Output
      • Monitor
      • Printer
      • Plotter
      • Digital Projector
      • Speakers
      • Synthesiser
      • Robot / Machine
      • LED’s

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

storage
Storage
  • Place to keep important data
  • Kept on a storage medium
    • Magnetic, Optical, physical
  • Devices for Storage
      • Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
      • Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
      • Zip Drive
      • Tape Drive
      • CD / DVD (ROM, RW, R)
      • Memory Chips (USB sticks, Flash memory)
      • Punched Cards
      • Barcodes

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

computer architecture

BIOS

RAM

CPU

Graphic Card

Sound Card

Ports

Power

Supply

Hard Disk

Drive

Floppy

Disk Drive

Computer Architecture
  • What’s in the box?

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

ports
Ports
  • Physical interface or socket to connect a device to a computer
  • Interfaced to the computer’s motherboard
  • Two main types of port:
    • Serial
      • Data is transferred in streams
      • One bit after the other
    • Parallel
      • Data bits are transferred alongside each other in waves (concurrently)
  • Common ports
    • USB (Universal Serial Bus)
    • Serial (9-pin) & (15-pin ‘game’ port)
    • Parallel (25-pin)
    • SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

sound graphic cards
Sound & Graphic Cards
  • Interface directly onto the motherboard
  • Graphics Card usually uses the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
    • Provides basic and / or advanced graphics capability
    • Often have graphics co-processors
    • On-board VRAM (Video RAM)
  • Sound card uses a PCI (peripheral Component Interconnect) slot
    • Allows computer to output sound to speakers and record sounds.
    • Adds MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) capability

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

hard disk drives hdd

Disk Platter

Read/Write Heads

Spindle

Hard Disk Drives (HDD)
  • Magnetic storage medium
  • Uses rotating metal disks (platters)
  • Use read and write ‘heads’ to store and retrieve information
  • Large storage capacity

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

floppy disk drive fdd
Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
  • Magnetic storage medium
  • Uses rotating single, thin magnetic disk
  • Requires a drive to read the disk, which has the read/write heads
  • Small storage capacity
    • Typically 1.44 Mb (High Density 3.5”)
  • Portable
  • Cheap

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks
  • How the disk works:

Cluster

Sector

Track

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

slide12
BIOS
  • Basic Input Output System (BIOS)
  • Provides the computer with basic functionality
  • Built-in software, no disk access
    • Usually a ROM chip on the motherboard
  • Common BIOS manufacturers
    • Award, Compaq, HP
  • Settings are saved to a CMOS chip, powered by a battery
    • CMOS = Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

random access memory ram
Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Used to store instructions that are in current use
  • Two main types of RAM:
    • Static RAM (SRAM)
      • reliable
      • does not need to be constantly refreshed
      • fast
      • expensive
    • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
      • more common
      • slower than SRAM
      • cheap
      • must be constantly refreshed
    • Both volatile’ (contents lost when power is off)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

random access memory ram1
Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Cache Memory
    • Essentially RAM that the CPU can access quickly
      • Is physically close to the processor
    • Usually always SRAM
      • Therefore, small sizes are common compared to size of RAM
    • Two levels of cache memory
      • Level 1 - Situated inside the processor
        • Commonly 512 kb
      • Level 2 - A separate RAM chip on the motherboard or in expansion slot
        • Commonly 1024 kb (1 Mb)

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

central processing unit cpu

ALU

Control

Unit

CPU

High Speed Registers

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • CPU has three important parts:
    • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)
    • Control Unit
    • Registers

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

central processing unit cpu1
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Arithmetic & Logic Unit
    • Handles mathematical and logical functions (numerical)
    • Deals with non-numerical logic operations
  • Control Unit
    • Handles all low-level hardware operations
      • Input & Output Devices and CPU
    • Carries out instruction handling
      • Fetch Execute Cycle
  • Registers
    • Storage areas within the CPU
    • Accessible at high speed
    • Anything for processing must be kept in a register
    • Can also hold the address of a memory location

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

buses
Buses
  • A collection of wires which connects together the internal components of the computer
    • Allows transfer of data
  • Main types of bus:
    • Data bus
      • Carries actual data bits (information)
    • Address bus
      • Transfers locations where data should be sent
    • Control bus
      • Carries status information

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

buses1

CPU

INPUT

OUTPUT

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

MEMORY

Buses
  • How buses fit into the computer system

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

computer architecture1
Computer Architecture
  • The Von Neumann Model
    • 1903 - 1957
    • Mathematician
    • Quantum physicist
    • Worked on ENIAC
      • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
      • Major development in computer technology
    • Responsible for developing the Fetch Execute Cycle, and his namesake -
      • ‘Von Neumann Model’
    • The original computer geek?!

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003

week 21
Week 2
  • What we know now!
    • Input, Output, Storage
      • Devices
      • Media
        • HDD
        • FDD
        • How magnetic Disks work
    • Computer Architecture
      • BIOS
      • Ports
      • The CPU
        • ALU
        • Control unit
        • Registers
      • Buses
      • Von-Neumann

Stuart Cunningham - Computer Platforms - 2003