CISLUNAR AMBULANCE for Assured Crew Return Capability Nicole Jordan December 15 2008 Lunar Observatory “Looking Glass 204”
Assured Crew Return Capability • First priority in any crewed mission is to return the crew safely back to earth. • Must provide a robust/reliable escape route just in case something goes wrong • This has been and is a key consideration on past and future space missions • ISS 3 occupants • ISS 6 occupants • Apollo13 Command module/lander ECLSS • It adds $$$$ penalty to mission architecture • Firmly establishing an ACRC is essential for a manned Lunar Mission
Our Mission • Multinational collaboration – NASA in leadership role • First four flights by US transportation Architecture • Fuel and crew rescue vehicle • Fuel only • Cargo 1 us based • Cargo 2 International • Cargo 3 International • Crew landing • International collaboration trips • Chinese or Russia to Deliver crew vehicles and fuel • Private sector can be contracted for cheaper to just deliver fuel SpaceX Falcon 9
Emergency Scenarios • Any sort of unpredicted sickness • Crew anomaly – aneurism or cardiac failure, infection from contamination, solar flare radiation effects, • All needing quick withdrawal to safe haven and possible evacuation to Earth. • Accident while operating equipment – most difficult scenario.
Now What?- Triage • Contain the situation at the site and see if crew can be helped right there. • If not possible, try to get help from base or other close location. • If crew is in a condition that cannot be helped while on the moon and needs care on Earth...no choice but to evacuate...using the Cislunar ambulance !
CisLunar Ambulance Cislunar Ambulance: Descent stage: host majority of fuel and pick up crew moon van Ascent stage: fuel Command Module Propulsion for vehicle might have to withstand more than 50 MT. The propulsion system need to be capable to do midcourse corrections Needs to be self supportive for Moon to Earth Transit ( 3days, 3 hrs. 45 minutes)
Things to consider for Evacuation • A lot of fuel will be needed • Difficulties associated with handling incapacitated crew members in EVA suits • Delta V needed for lunar escape velocity of 2.4 km/s • Cislunar Ambulance • Better than docking up with CEV • Too risky and difficult for an incapacitated crew to rendezvous and transfer back into command module while in orbit • It might take up to several hours therefore it will need more fuel • Crew rescue vehicle will be in proximity to the South pole and astronaut activity • Ready to function on a 24/7 basis
Fuel Caching/Lunar Fuel Depot Location the south Pole Fuels need: The analysis of the ESAS report for the CEV focuses on LOX/LCH4 as well as LOX/LH2 Liquid Methane and Nitrogen Tetroxide, used In Gemeni , Apollo and Space shuttle Four main types of storage have to be taken into account Gaseous - Cold Gas Cryogenic liquid Storables –N204 / Aerozine 50 Solids
Fuel/Caching Depot Constraints • Temperature: Shadowed polar craters can average a temperature of 40k. Specially the one in the south pole • There is no ideal temperature range but energy is needed to keep the chosen storage method within the desire temperature range • In order to store LOX and LH2 in a cryogenic stage , tanks able to maintain 90 K -20K and respectively are needed • Prolonged periods: ( long nights/days) can aid the system to be more efficient but impose more design constrains such as on the tanks that are just designed for orbit might not be ideal for these long periods of time. • Meteoroid collision: 10km/s to 160 km/s can be disastrous to a storage delivery system – not design requirement • Refrigeration failure: Is the highest risk will be which will lead to cryogenic loss
Storage location Criteria Physical parameters like temperature fluctuation on storage site, pressure and radiation Proximity to crew rescue or access vehicle Operational parameters like accessibility and dust and quick connects for modular tanks Area must have a sufficient range safety distance and explosive containment systems
Crew Evacuation • Purpose: Launch the CisLunar Ambulance from Moon Direct to earth • Launching Procedures • Reentry and touch down will be determined in real-time after lunar surface lift off is initiated. • Crew rescue procedures
International Collaboration for Crew Rescue Lunar vehicles might not just be from the US Rescue humans anywhere on the earth/ earth entry trajectory too is unplanned. The creation of a International Landing and Rescue Federation Organization Understand all rescue crew capsules technical capabilities Supervise re-entry trajectories and landing sites Help moderate and protect international land marks Train and assemble rescue team on site International defense alert, search and rescue effort
Further Studies • Orbital Dynamics of this system for ACRC • Study ways to reduce the CM mass by at least 20% • Impact of Fuel Caching on NASA’s Lunar Return Architectures • Alternative Applications – suborbital transport, lunar orbit ferry, ISRU • How to quickly and safely get crew into Cislunar Ambulance and strap them into the CEV • How will the Cislunar Ambulance collect crew that are incapacitated in different locations of the moon – such as during a rover traverse accident • Design of ballistic pickup moon crew van
Bibliography • NASA Exploration Systems Architecture Study • Human Space Flight Mission Analysis and Design, Wiley J Larson • International Space University, “Full Moon Report 2007” • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altair_(spacecraft) • http://images.spaceref.com/news/2007/AIAA.ESMD.SPACE.2007.pdf • http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/leag2007/presentations/20071003.bienhoff.pdf • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/constellation/orion/index.html • http://nextbigfuture.com/2008/01/boeing-propellant-depot-useful-space.html • http://www.universetoday.com/2008/04/10/how-long-does-it-take-to-get-to-the-moon/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinitrogen_tetroxide