Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism Ch 10 Sec 3
Habsburg Austria • In 1740 Maria Theresa became the ruler of the Habsburgs lands. • The signing of the Pragmatic Sanction made this possible for her to take the land. • She would rule over a large area of land that was very diverse. • Belgians, bohemians, Croatians, Hungarians, Italians, Poles, Romanians, Serbs, and Slovenians. • Large number of languages, nationalities and cultures • Made it very difficult to rule the area effectively.
Rise of the Hohenzollerns • Ruled a small northern German State called Brandenburg- Prussia. • They wanted to gain power and to gain more land. • The first great ruler was Fredrick William or the Great Elector. • Unified the armies into one powerful army • In 1713 Fredrick William I became king. • He devoted much of his time into making the Prussian army the most powerful in Europe. • Prussian was very much a militarized state. • He also created an efficient tax system • He believed that all children should receive an education • Encouraged trade and industries.
Conflict Between Prussia and Austria • War of the Austrian Succession • Prussia claimed Silesia, but the Austrians had the land. • War was from 1740-1748, On one side was Bavaria, Spain, France and Prussia. • The other Austria, England, Netherlands, and Russia. • Austria lost the war and Silesia. • Soon after the war the countries switched allies. • England was with Prussia • France, Austria and Russia
The Seven Years War • Lasted from 1756-1763. • Almost all of Europe was involved. • Battled were fought in Europe, overseas colonies and North America(French Indian Wars). • Prussia lost a battle to a combined Russian and Austrian Army. • Russia eventually signed a treaty with Prussia. • Peter III, wanted to stop fighting. • England also was looking for peace. • All involved signed the Treaty of Paris. • There were no eventual winners.
Years of Peace • After a century of fighting. Prussia came out as the weakest country. • Tremendous loss of industry and man power. • Most countries were weary of war and were eager to recover. • After spending the first 23 years of rule fighting, Fredrick the Great, spent 23 more rebuilding Prussia. • Prussia returned as a European power.