First Aid Procedures • Approaching the victim, survey the scene for safety and clues • Initial assessment • Get first aid materials (kit) • Call for help, telephone ahead to animal hospital
First Aid Procedures • Restraint of dog • Transport • First aid for specific injuries • Contents of first aid kit and how to use them.
HEAT STROKE • Usually occurs in animals exposed to a high environmental temperature and exposed to stress (confinement in a car, overexertion, Malignant Hyperthermia) • Overweight animals as well as geriatric or infant are more prone to heat stroke • Rectal temperature can reach 105 -110 (normal = 99.5 - 102.2)
HEAT STROKE • Alters functions of all body organs, causes cell death and kidney failure, shock • Excess panting leads to changes in body pH and electrolyte abnormalities as well as brain swelling and death
HEAT STROKE SYMPTOMS: • Excess panting • Weakness, collapse • Rectal temp > 105 • Irregular heartbeats • Possibly dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, lack or urine output • Possibly seizures
HEAT STROKE FIRST AID TREATMENT: • Lower body temperatureby immersing animal in cold water or putting cold compresses or packs on the animal (especially in the groin, neck, chest areas) • Attempt to get a rectal temp of 102 within 30 - 60 minutes • Monitor rectal temp every 2 to 5 minutes so as not to overcool the animal • Stop cooling when temp = 103 • Transport ASAP to hospital where animal will be put on IV therapy
BURNS: THERMAL SYMPTOMS: • Redness • Blistering • Charred skin • Singed hair coat
BURNS: THERMAL FIRST AID TREATMENT: If skin is broken and blistered DO *NOT* apply ice, water, or ointment! DO apply sterile non-adherent bandage (second skin) and transport If skin is not broken and blistered, Apply ice packs or cold water compresses followed by an anesthetic cream (lanacaine)
BURNS: CHEMICAL CHEMICAL BURN SYMPTOMS: • If fur present it may feel like thickened area under the hair coat • Animal may lick or scratch at the area • Skin may be red, blistered
BURNS: CHEMICAL FIRST AID TREATMENT: • Flush areas with copious amounts of water (5 minutes!) even if the skin is broken Water dilutes the chemical and helps to flush it away from the skin • Pad the area with wet gauze and transport ASAP • Try to ID the chemical • Do *NOT* apply topical meds • Do *NOT* let animal lick the area It can lead to burns of the mouth and throat • If burn occurs near or in the eyes, flush with sterile saline (contact lens solution)
ELECTRICAL BURNS **** YOUR SAFETY MUST COME FIRST **** • Usually results from chewing electrical cords or being struck by lightening • Affects local tissues as well as the heart
ELECTRICAL BURNS SYMPTOMS: • May be local tissue (if chewing a cord) of the mouth or may involve deep underlying tissues • Full extent of tissue injury may not be evident for several weeks when all of the burned tissue sloughs off • May have initial swelling as well as pulmonary edema • May have affected heart rate and rhythm • May be unconscious, not breathing, and/or without a heartbeat
INSECT BITES • Includes bees and hornet type flying bugs, ants, spiders • Can cause an allergic reaction, locally or systematically
INSECT BITES FIRST AID TREATMENT: 1. Locate stinger and remove with tweezers 2. Apply ice pack or cold compress 3. Monitor for infection (red skin maybe with some swelling) 4. If in doubt, check it out! 5. Monitor breathing and possibility of swelling around the face and neck or possibly hives 6. Treat these initially as a systemic allergic reaction with possibility of anaphylaxis by giving Benadryl 7. Transport ASAP if systemic reaction is occurring
INSECT BITES 8. Watch for symptoms of toxicity over the next few days including: Excess salivation Irritated skin areas Painful areas Fever Rapid or difficult breathing Paleness to gums Vomiting or diarrhea Blood in urine Stiffness or paralysis
TICKS • Can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Lyme, Ehrlichia, and Babesiosis • Ticks embed only their mouth parts into the skin. It is not possible for a tick’s head to get left behind in the animal’s skin but it is possible for the area to become infected or irritated and swollen. Mouth parts may be left in bite area. They are “glued” into the skin when the tick attaches
TICKS FIRST AID TREATMENT: **** Best treatment is prevention**** Use flea/tick topical drops or sprays and check the animal over after every trip into the fields or woodlands***** Vaccination is helpful in high risk areas 1. Pull the tick with constant pressure using tweezers if possible. “Ticked OFF” 2. If available, apply flea and tick spray first 3. Do *NOT* burn or apply any other chemicals to the tick while it is in the animal’s skin 4. Avoid touching the tick with your bare hands and flush it down the toilet 5. Apply antibiotic ointment to the area if you would like
TICKS LYME DISEASE Is a bacterial infection transmitted to the animal via the deer tick, which is very small, similar in size to the head of a pin SYMPTOMS May Include: Fever, shifting lameness, lethargy, poor appetite, kidney disease, ADR (Ain’t doin’ right)
TICKS EHRLICHIOSIS Infection transmitted by Brown dog ticks SYMPTOMS May Include: Lethargy, fever, poor appetite, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding tendencies, ADR
TICKS ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER SYMPTOMS may be vague Joint pain, hemorrhages, lethargy, fever, poor appetite, lameness, ADR
TICKS ANAPLASMOSIS SYMPTOMS: Joint pain, anemia, lethargy, low platelet count. ADR Formerly known as Ehrlichia Equi
TICKS TREATMENT – Need to seek Veterinarian’s help Usually antibiotics, Typically Doxycycline. PREVENTION IS BEST !
TICKS BABESIOSIS SYMPTOMS Blood parasite. Anemia, low platelets, may mimic autoimmune disease, bleeding, hemolytic anemia, kidney failure. TREATMENT Imidocarb An antibiotic
SNAKES ***IDENTIFY THE OFFENDING REPTILE IF POSSIBLE*** Non-poisonous: bite wound is usually multi-toothed and painless and usually appears superficial FIRST AID TREATMENT • Clip hair, clean wound with iodine type soap (Betadine) • Apply dry sterile bandage • Seek veterinary help (not an emergency) for antibiotic treatment as snakes have an extensive bacterial flora in their mouths! • Observe animal closely for 6 hours, especially if the species of snake is unknown
SNAKES Poisonous: 3 groups of venomous snakes in North America Pit vipers, coral snakes, and colubrids • Allare dangerous - lethality dependent upon toxicity and amount of venom, • Size and health of victim, time delay between envenomation and medical intervention • Pit viper includes water moccasin, cottonmouth, copperhead, and rattlesnake • Characterized by a deep pit located between the eye and nostril, elliptical pupils, retractable front fangs
SNAKES FIRST AID TREATMENT • Get the snake off! Pry it or burn it. • Keep animal calm because high heart rate will speed the flow of venom • If bite is on a limb, apply a tourniquet 2 - 3 inches above the bite Questionable • Should be able to insert 1 finger between tourniquet and animal’s skin • If leg swells, loosen the tourniquet • Cut 1/2 inch through each puncture Not Recommended
SNAKES • Flush wound and squeeze or suction • Clean with betadine and lots of water • Cold pack (ice) Not recommended in people • Transport ASAP • If bite is not on a limb keep animal calm, and transport • Animal may develop respiratory distress or digestive upset and may become depressed, paralyzed, comatose or may even die en route
ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES AVOID THEM! Keep a close eye on your animal using a leash except when working. Watch for the approach of other animals whose owners are not as watchful. Watch the behavior of the two animals! If a fight occurs, do *NOT* put anything that bleeds between the dogs.
ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES • Use a leash or strong stick: place it through the collar of the attacker and twist it so that the collar tightens. He will release his grip. Be prepared to quickly use the stick or a two hand strong arm to keep the animal from turning on you. • Use the leash as a noose when one animal has a vice grip on another, shove a stick between his jaws. He will relax only for a moment at which time you must quickly pull him off.
ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES FIRST AID TREATMENT: • Thoroughly go over the animal looking for punctures, tears, or matted fur • Clip the hair around the wounds • Scrub with a betadine type soap • Anything over 1/2 inch should be seen by Veterinarian • Bites on head, limbs, and genitalia or from a larger animal may have more serious “crushing” injuries, which will severely damage underlying tissues • Have it checked out! Many doctors will prescribe antibiotics
FRACTURES • Generally associated with trauma • Must immediately restrict activity • May also involve internal bleeding or other life threatening injuries.
FRACTURES SYMPTOMS: • Obvious break with bone exposed => compound or open fracture • Non-weight bearing on that limb • Swollen limb or area of leg • Painful, does not resolve with time • Fractures of ribs are usually associated with difficulty breathing
FRACTURES FIRST AID TREATMENT: • MUZZLE (only if the dog is NOT having trouble breathing, or vomiting) Fractures are VERY PAINFUL • Wrap dog in a blanket or a towel to restrict movement • Use newspaper folded to gently support the injured limb • Place dog on a board, crate pan or crate bottom (Vari-Kennel) and transport ASAP
TORN EARS AND HEMATOMAS • Result from barbed wire, fighting • Hematoma = hemorrhage under the skin, usually results from severe head shaking (itchy ears) • Torn ears will bleed profusely • Head shaking leads to more bleeding
TORN EARS AND HEMATOMAS FIRST AID TREATMENT: • Cold wet compresses applied quickly and firmly to ear flap (ice) • Bandage up over the head - bandage right around the head and neck (not too tight!) • If hematoma, see a Veterinarian for treatment (not an emergency)
FISH HOOK INJURIES • Ingested: Do not pull on line! It is likely to get caught and do internal damage. Go to Veterinarian, ASAP • In lip, mouth or body. Push hook through skin, cut barb with wire cutters, and back rest of hook out.
BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS This is a ** SERIOUS ** Emergency
BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS • Distention of stomach with gas or fluid or both • Rotation of stomach which seals off blood supply = volvulus or torsion depending on the axis of rotation • Extreme pain and is fatal if not treated immediately (within 1 hour!) • Often traps the spleen as well • Causes are many but may include: anatomic predisposition or anomalies, dry food with excess water, exercise closely associated with feeding
BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDITION: Blood return to heart decreases, cardiac output decreases, cardiac arrythmias may follow. Toxins build up in the dying tissues of the stomach lining. Liver, pancreas, small bowel are also compromised. Shock from low blood pressure and endotoxins rapidly develops. Sometimes stomach ruptures leading to peritonitis.
BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS SYMPTOMS: May include some or all • Attempts at belching • Increased gas noises from abdomen • Retching or dry heaves • Distended abdomen (not always visible) • Restlessness, pacing, crying, stretching out on floor • Anxiety followed by depression • Collapse • Whites of eyes get red as blood vessels dilate • Increased respiration rate
BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS FIRST AID TREATMENT: • Call ahead to hospital so they will be prepared for immediate action and surgery if necessary • Veterinarian will attempt to decompress the stomach and treat for shock SUGGESTIONS FOR PREVENTION (not guaranteed but will increase odds!) • Feed two or three small meals daily instead of one • Elevate feeding bowls • Discourage rapid eating • Do *NOT* exercise within 2 hours of a meal • Give water in small amounts when associated with food or exercise
BLEEDING SYMPTOMS • Usually associated with trauma. • Flow of blood helps determine origin • Spurting-arterial • Flowing-venous • Blood loss can cause shock and death
BLEEDING FIRST AID TREATMENT • Direct pressure on the wound with sterile or clean padding • Pressure bandage • Pressure points, limited to legs hold off artery • Tourniquet, last resort if applied must transport ASAP.
SHOCK SYMPTOMS • Rapid heart rate >160 beats per minute • Pale or blue gums • General weakness • Collapse
SHOCK FIRST AID TREATMENT • Breathing? Any obstruction to airway? • Bleeding? Control • Heart rate? • Broken bones? • Correct worst problem first, CPR, control bleeding • Calm animal, keep warm, and transport ASAP
INJURIES TO THE SKIN • Commonly associated with some type of trauma. • Lacerations (cuts) from sharp objects • Abrasions (scrapes) like road burns • Punctures blunt objects, projectiles • Burns