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Camera Angles and Editing. Media Language. Lesson Outcomes. Understand that the positioning of the camera can create and change the meaning of the scene Understand how the editing of different shots can also create and change the meaning of a scene and a film. EXTREME LONG SHOT.

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lesson outcomes
Lesson Outcomes
  • Understand that the positioning of the camera can create and change the meaning of the scene
  • Understand how the editing of different shots can also create and change the meaning of a scene and a film
extreme long shot
  • A framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a building, landscape, or crowd of people will fill the screen.
  • Usually the first or last shots of a sequence, that can also function as establishing shots..
long shot
  • A framing in which the scale of the object shown is small; a standing human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen.
  • It makes for a relatively stable shot that can accomodate movement without reframing
medium long shot
  • Framing such an object four or five feet high would fill most of the screen vertically.
  • Also called plain américain, given its recurrence in the Western genre, where it was important to keep a cowboy's weapon in the image.
medium close up
  • A framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large; a human figure seen from the chest up would fill most of the screen.
  • Another common shot scale.
close up
  • A framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large.
  • In a close-up a person's head, or some other similarly sized object, would fill the frame.
extreme close up
  • A framing in which the scale of the object shown is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body usually shot with a zoom lens.
  • Again, faces are the most recurrent images in extreme close-ups
crane shot
  • A shot with a change in framing rendered by having the camera above the ground and moving through the air in any direction.
  • It is accomplished by placing the camera on a crane (basically, a large cantilevered arm) or similar device.
handheld camera steadycam
  • The use of the camera operator's body as a camera support, either holding it by hand or using a gyroscopic stabilizer and a harness.
  • Used by newsreel and wartime camera operators. Recently, they are extensively used in music videos and in the films of the Dogme movement
  • Camera body turning to the right or left. On the screen, it produces a mobile framing which scans the space horizontally.
  • A pan directly and immediately connects two places or characters, thus making us aware of their proximity. The speed at which a pan occurs can be exploited for different dramatic purposes.
  • The camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support. Scans the space vertically.
  • A tilt usually also implies a change in the angle of framing;
  • High angle view – inferior
  • Low angle – superior
tracking shot
  • A mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally. Usually follows a character or object as it moves along the screen
whip pan
  • An extremely fast movement of the camera from side to side, which briefly causes the image to blur into a set of indistinct horizontal streaks.
  • Commonly used in flashy action genres such as kung-fu movies from the 70s, like Fists of Fury
editing wipe
  • A transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating the first shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one.
  • A very dynamic and noticeable transition, it is usually employed in action or adventure films.
  • A transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears; for a moment the two images blend in.
  • Can be used as a fairly straighforward editing device to link any two scenes, or in more creative ways, for instance to suggest hallucinatory states.
jump cut
  • An elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot.
  • Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background, or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant
crosscutting aka parallel editing
  • Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously.
  • The two actions are therefore linked, associating the characters from both lines of action.
continuity editing
  • A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. Continuity editing relies upon matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot.
  • The film supports the viewer's assumption that space and time are contiguous between successive shots.
  • An approach to editing developed by the Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s such as Pudovkin, Vertov and Eisenstein;
  • It emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either shot by itself.
elliptical editing
  • Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipses in plot and story duration.
  • In this clip from Traffic a drug party is rendered through elliptical editing (achieved with a plentiful use of dissolves and jump cuts) in order to both shorten the time and suggest the character's rambling mental states.
eyeline match matches
  • A cut obeying the axis of action principle, in which the first shot shows a person off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees.
graphic match matches
  • Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (e.g., colour, shape).
  • Used in transparent continuity styles to smooth the transition between two shots
match on action matches
  • A cut which splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted.
  • Quite logically, these characteristics make it one of the most common transitions in the continuity style.
long take aka plan sequence duration
  • A shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot.
  • The average length per shot differs greatly for different times and places, but most contemporary films tend to have faster editing rates.
  • In general lines, any shot above one minute can be considered a long take.
overlapping editing duration
  • Cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration.
  • Most commonly associated with experimental filmmmaking, due to its temporally disconcerting and purely graphic nature,
  • it is also featured in films in which action and movement take precedence over plot and dialogue.
rhythm duration
  • The perceived rate and regularity of sounds, series of shots, and movements within the shots.
  • Rhythmic factors include beat (or pulse), accent (or stress), and tempo (or pace).
  • Rhythm is one of the essential features of a film, for it decisively contributes to its mood and overall impression on the spectator.