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Anisa M. Zvonkovic, Jennifer Rojas, NaYeon Lee, Holly Follmer, Erin Ritchey, & Sara Dodd Texas Tech University PowerPoint Presentation
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The Effects of Globalization and Work Travel: What They Mean for Your Workers and Business Paper presented at the Work/Life Summit Preconference of the National Council on Family Relations, November 6, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

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The Effects of Globalization and Work Travel: What They Mean for Your Workers and BusinessPaper presented at the Work/Life Summit Preconference of the National Council on Family Relations, November 6, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Anisa M. Zvonkovic, Jennifer Rojas, NaYeon Lee, Holly Follmer, Erin Ritchey, & Sara Dodd

Texas Tech University

globalization
Globalization
  • Definition: To make global or worldwide in scope or application.
  • Reasons for Globalization
    • World Economy
    • Cost Effectiveness
  • Prevalence
    • Increasing
    • Breadth of Industries and Occupational Categories
challenges
Challenges
  • Working in Multiple Countries
    • Political
    • Regulatory
    • Local Customs and Practices
    • Tax Issues
    • Language
  • Managing Multiple Sites
    • Time Difference
    • Personal Contact
supports
Supports
  • Working in Multiple Countries
    • Web Access
    • Video Conferencing
  • Decentralized Global Companies
    • Call Forwarding
    • Increased Contact Across All Company Level & With Clients

“As business becomes more global and technology calls for 24/7 performance, those who lead companies must be able to move through several time zones several times a week, and communicate with staff and customers around the clock” (Hymowitz, 2001).

globalization and travel
Globalization and Travel
  • Globalization of companies has spurred travel
  • New occupational sectors
  • New markets
  • Twenty-five to thirty percent of full time workers are estimated to travel frequently for their jobs (Presser & Hermsen, 1996).
travel
Travel
  • Frequent travelers
    • Stay overnight > 20 nights per year
    • Average over 45 hours per week
    • Average over 60 nights away
    • Tend to be in their 40s
frequent travelers occupations
Industries

Engineering/ Architectural

Business Management

Justice

Nursing

Trucking

National Security

Occupations

Managers

Marketers

Public Relations Representatives

Administrators

Supervisors

Frequent Travelers’ Occupations
work travel schedules
Work Travel Schedules
  • Travel Intensity
    • Length of Trip
    • Number of Trips
    • Total Nights Away
  • Travel intensity actually makes a difference.
  • Here is a look at 3 different examples.
how does work travel affect organizations
How does work travel affect organizations?
  • Team Dynamics
  • 24/7 Clocks
    • Communication
    • Jet Lag
  • Risk
    • Personal Safety
    • Insurance
    • Emergency Contacts

Work travel is a necessity regardless of drawbacks.

how does work travel affect workers
How does work travel affect workers?
  • Sleep
    • Time Change Differences
    • Social Rhythms Index
    • Regular Sleep Cycle Upon Return
  • Time: Rushed Time & Work Pressure
    • Preparation
    • During Trip
    • Returning Home
how does work travel affect workers well being
How does work travel affect workers’ well being?
  • Commitment to organization
  • Commitment to working
  • Feeling
    • Rushed
    • Stressed
    • Anxious
  • Sleep deprivation affects alertness, mood, and emotions.
other job factors
Other Job Factors
  • At least two different types of workers vary on:
    • Status & Pay
      • Education
    • Job Autonomy
    • Schedule Flexibility
    • Work Engagement

Next is a description of two case studies.

case studies
Barbra

41-year-old Female

Professional Sales Representative

3 Years at Current Job

Olivia

35-year-old Female

Community Development Specialist

11 Years at Current Job

Case Studies
job information
Barbra

Her job satisfaction is mildly positive

Work is satisfying but frustrating.

Her present pay mildly negative but fair.

She has had her current supervisor for 3 years.

Olivia

Her job satisfaction is highly positive

Work is very fascinating & respected.

Her present pay is mildly negative.

She has had her current supervisor for 1 year.

Job Information
travel information
Barbra

Travels 4-6 nights/month.

Trips tend to be 3 days and 2 nights.

Perceives travel as a big problem in her life.

Travel does not affect her success or how she is regarded in company.

Olivia

Travels 8-10 nights/month.

Trips tend to be 3 days and 2 nights.

Perceives travel as a little of a good thing.

Travel does affect her success and how she is regarded in company.

Travel Information
travel stressed employees may impact organizational factors
Travel Stressed Employees May Impact Organizational Factors
  • Organizations want to attract the best talent
  • Organizations want to retain good workers
  • Importance of managing personal lives:
    • Good and talented workers may quit if they are stressed by travel and personal life.
case study personal family information
Barbra

Married-18 years

Has 2 children

14-year-old son

7-year-old daughter

Olivia

Married-12 years

Has 2 children

8-year-old son

4-year-old son

Case Study: Personal/Family Information
case study perceptual information
Barbra

Family > job very often.

Job > family sometimes.

Time is somewhat rushed when it comes to family.

Olivia

Family > job rarely/almost never.

Job > family sometimes.

Time is very rushed when it comes to family.

Case Study: Perceptual Information
varied challenges of travel
Varied Challenges of Travel
  • Workers who travel experience stress in different ways depending on:
    • Gender
    • Marital & partnership status
    • Parental status
    • as well as travel & job factors
what organizations can do
What Organizations Can Do
  • Extending employee services
    • Onsite child care & concierge services
  • Enhancing employee benefits
    • Paid parental leave; resource & referral
  • Changing work culture
    • Flexibility & leadership development

Source: James & Harrington chapter, Work family handbook

workplace policies their use
Workplace Policies & Their Use
  • Formal policies may be supportive but direct supervisor & corporate culture discourage their use
  • Formal policies are not helpful but direct supervisor may be supportive
  • Policies, culture & supervisors are applied differently to workers depending on their status
in travelers own words examples of policies for travel
In Travelers’ Own Words: Examples of Policies for Travel
  • Before the Trip
    • Leave days
    • Concierge services
    • Team stress
  • During the Trip
    • Technology use (cell phones, computer)
  • Returning from Trip
    • Leave days
    • Smooth reimbursement
work travel family project
Work, Travel, Family Project
  • This project seeks to explore the experience of individuals whose jobs require travel in a cross-section of occupations.
  • This study looks at how travelers & family members are affected by the rhythms of regular work travel.
example questions
Example Questions
  • Which organizational practices are the most effective at supporting traveling employees, promoting work-life balance, and protecting worker health?
  • How does work-related travel influence the tempo of routines and relationships at home?
project design
Project Design
  • Interviews with family members at their convenience.
  • PDA daily diary reports:
    • Work time
    • Daily activities
    • Health-related behaviors
    • Daily mood, stress, & coping
thoughts to leave you with
Thoughts To Leave You With
  • Are business work trips in your organization caused by globalization?
  • How are business trips arranged?
  • How can your organization minimize stress and a rushed pace when you are on the road?