aks 34a explain the origins of islam the growth of the islamic empire l.
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AKS 34a: Explain the origins of Islam & the growth of the Islamic Empire. 1. Who are the Bedouins?. Arab nomads on the Arabian Peninsula. 2. What do the Bedouins value that became part of the Islamic way of life?.

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1 who are the bedouins
1. Who are the Bedouins?
  • Arab nomads on the Arabian Peninsula.

2. What do the Bedouins value that became part of the Islamic way of life?

  • Valued ideals of courage & loyalty to family, along with their warrior skills, would become part of the Islamic way of life.
3 who is muhammad and explain his early life
3. Who is Muhammad and explain his early life?
  • Born in Mecca.
  • Orphaned at age of 6.
  • When he was 25 he married a 40 year old business woman named Khadijah.
  • He would often pray & meditate alone in caves.
4 what happened to muhammad at age 40 and what did he begin to teach
4. What happened to Muhammad at age 40 and what did he begin to teach?
  • While meditating in a cave he heard the voice of the Angel Gabriel.
  • Angel Gabriel told Muhammad that he was a messenger of Allah.
  • Muhammad realized he was the last prophet.
  • He began to teach that Allah was the one and only God & that all other Gods should be abandoned.
5 what do islam muslim mean in arabic
5. What do Islam & Muslim mean in Arabic?
  • Islam means “submission to the will of Allah”
  • Muslim means “one who has submitted”
6 what is the hijrah why is it a turning point for muhammad
6. What is the Hijrah & why is it a turning point for Muhammad?
  • After several of Muhammad’s followers were attacked, he decided to leave Mecca & move to Yathrib {aka Medina}.
  • It was a turning point because it allowed him to become a political, religious & military leader.
  • Muhammad also gained a lot of followers.
7 when did muhammad his followers return to mecca
7. When did Muhammad &his followers return to Mecca?
  • In 630, Muhammad & his followers returned to Mecca to takeover the city.
  • The leaders of Mecca surrendered.
8 what did most meccans do upon his return
8. What did most Meccans do upon his return?
  • Pledged their loyalty to Muhammad & many converted to Islam.
9 what are the beliefs practices of islam10
9. What are the beliefs & practices of Islam?
  • Faith: Declaration that there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet.
9 what are the beliefs practices of islam11
9. What are the beliefs & practices of Islam?
  • Prayer: Five times a day {morning, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, & evening} facing Mecca
9 what are the beliefs practices of islam12
9. What are the beliefs & practices of Islam?
  • Alms: Muslims have a social responsibility to give money to the poor
9 what are the beliefs practices of islam13
9. What are the beliefs & practices of Islam?
  • Fasting: Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan from dawn to dusk. The idea is to show that spiritual needs are greater than physical needs.
9 what are the beliefs practices of islam14
9. What are the beliefs & practices of Islam?
  • Pilgrimage: All Muslims who are physically and financially able make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lives.
10 who is the original source of authority for muslims what does this word mean
10. Who is the original source of authority for Muslims & what does this word mean?
  • Allah.
  • “God”.
11 what is the holy book of islam called
11. What is the holy book of Islam called?
  • Qur’an.
    • Written in Arabic.
    • Only the Arabic translation can be used during worship.
    • This helped spread the message of Muhammad.
12 who was muhammad s successor what is his title how did he spread islam
12. Who was Muhammad’s successor, what is his title, & how did he spread Islam?
  • Muhammad died in 632.
    • He named no successor or instructions on how to pick his successor.
  • Abu Bakr was elected as the first caliph.
    • Caliph means “successor”.
    • To save the Islamic Faith, he invoked the jihad.
13 what is the jihad
13. What is the jihad?
  • Jihad means “striving”.
    • The inner struggle against evil.
  • Qur’an says the Jihad means an armed struggle against unbelievers.
    • Abu Bakr applied this meaning of jihad to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam.
14 why did the four rightly guided caliphs succeed in spreading islam
14. Why did the four “rightly guided” caliphs succeed in spreading Islam?
  • Abu Bakr – 1st Rightly Guided Caliph
    • Applied the Qur’an meaning of jihad to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam.
14 why did the four rightly guided caliphs succeed in spreading islam23
14. Why did the four “rightly guided” caliphs succeed in spreading Islam?
  • Umar – 2nd Rightly Guided Caliph
    • Muslim armies conquered Syria & lower Egypt, parts of the Sassanid Empire.
14 why did the four rightly guided caliphs succeed in spreading islam24
14. Why did the four “rightly guided” caliphs succeed in spreading Islam?
  • Uthman – 3rd Rightly Guided Caliph
    • Continued to expand Muslim territories.
14 why did the four rightly guided caliphs succeed in spreading islam25
14. Why did the four “rightly guided” caliphs succeed in spreading Islam?
  • Ali – 4th Rightly Guided Caliph
    • Continued to expand Muslim territories.
1 what happened in 656 and who were the two people claiming to be the rulers
1. What happened in 656 and who were the two people claiming to be the rulers?
  • 656 – Uthman was murdered. This started a civil war.
  • Ali – the 4th Rightly Guided Caliph – was the natural choice as a successor to Uthman.
    • Ali was Muhammad’s cousin & son-in-law.
  • Muawiya, a governor from Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule.
  • 661 – Ali was assassinated.
2 who were the umayyads
2. Who were the Umayyads?
  • The Umayyads took control after Ali was assassinated.
  • Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus.
  • Lived a life of luxury, instead of simple life.
3 explain the split in detail between the shi a sunni
3. Explain the split, in detail, between the Shi’a & Sunni?
  • The majority of Muslims supported the Umayyads’ rule. . . . A small group resisted it.
fill in the following chart
Fill in the following chart:

BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUNNI & SHI’A MUSLIMS

SUNNI

SHI'A

Believe that the first

four caliphs were "rightly guided"

Believe Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law,

should have succedded Muhammad.

Believe that Muslims rulers

should follow the Sunna,

or Muhammad's example.

Believe that all Muslim rulers

should be descended

from Muhammad.

Claim that the Shi'a have

distorted the meaning of

various passages in the Qur'an.

Claim that the Sunni

have distorted the meaning of

various passages in the Qur'an.

slide31

Shi'a

16%

Sunni

83%

Other

1%

slide32

AKS 34d: Identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in culture, innovations, and the preservation of Classical knowledge to include: medicine (Ibn Sina), geography (Ibn Battuta), origins, and the basic tenants of Islam.

1 what three reasons do the muslims have for supporting science
1. What three reasons do the Muslims have for supporting science?
  • Rulers wanted qualified physicians treating them.
  • People needed to know what time to pray and the direction of Mecca.
  • Deep-seated curiosity about the world and a quest for truth.
2 what are the contributions of muslims to astronomy
2. What are the contributions of Muslims to astronomy?
  • Armillary sphere
    • Used to calculate time & date for prayer.
  • Studied orbits.
  • Mapped the stars.
slide36
4. During the Abbasid caliphate, what did literature include? Give an example of popular literature and explain the piece.
  • Included poetry about nature and the pleasures of life and love
    • Literature included The Thousand and One Nights, a collection of fairy tales, parables, and legends.
5 explain the following types of muslim art
5. Explain the following types of Muslim Art:
  • Calligraphy:
    • The art of beautiful handwriting
    • Images of living beings were discouraged because Muslims believe that only Allah can create life
5 explain the following types of muslim art38
5. Explain the following types of Muslim Art:
  • Geometric Patterns:
    • It uses intricate patterns that typically radiate out from the central shape
5 explain the following types of muslim art39
5. Explain the following types of Muslim Art:
  • Arabesque:
    • A complex, ornate design that usually incorporates flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns.
6 why did muslim artists express their creativity in this way
6. Why did Muslim artists express their creativity in this way?
  • Muslim leaders feared that people might begin worshipping the images rather than Allah.
7 what advances were made in medicine42
7. What advances were made in medicine?
  • Al-Razi:
    • Wrote a medical encyclopedia
    • He also wrote a treatise on smallpox and measles, where he believed people would recover more quickly if they breathed cleaner air.
8 what did muslim scholars believe about math
8. What did Muslim scholars believe about math?
  • They believed that mathematics was the basis of all knowledge.
9 what branch of math did the muslims create and who created it
9. What branch of math did the Muslims create and who created it?
  • Algebra, created by Al-Khwarizmi
10 who is ibn battuta where did he visit and what did he learn46
10. Who is Ibn Battuta, where did he visit, and what did he learn?
  • A traveler and historian
  • Visited most of the countries in the Islamic world.
  • He learned he could travel without fear of crime and praised people for their study of the Qur’an, but criticized them for not strictly practicing Islam’s moral code.
slide47
- Homework -

Complete

AKS 34e & AKS 34f for tomorrow!!!