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Restructuring the Postwar World. Chapter 17. Yalta Conference Iron Curtain Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO Warsaw Pact. Brinkmanship Third World Nonaligned nations Nikita Khrushchev Détente SALT talks. Cold War - terms to know. Frenemies.

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cold war terms to know
Yalta Conference

Iron Curtain


Truman Doctrine

Marshall Plan


Warsaw Pact


Third World

Nonaligned nations

Nikita Khrushchev


SALT talks

Cold War - terms to know
  • Soviets and US were allied during WWII
  • However, US was wary with the Soviets because of the alliance with Germany in 1939
  • Stalin then blamed the US for not getting involved in Europe until 1944
yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • Division of Germany
    • Germany would be occupied by Allies
    • Germany would pay reparations to Soviets
  • United Nations created
    • Peacekeeping organization, based in New York City
  • US and Soviets were no longer allies
    • WWII affected each one differently
    • Differences in politics and economics
iron curtain
Iron Curtain
  • Buffer zone
    • Soviets wanted a guard from the West
    • Stalin created communist governments to surround the Soviet Union (disregarded agreement from Yalta Conference)
      • Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia
    • Stalin believed communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world
  • Divided east and west
    • Democratic west, communist east
us resists the soviets
US resists the Soviets
  • Containment
    • Block Soviet influence by making alliances and helping weak countries resist communism
  • Truman Doctrine
    • US should aid any country that rejects communism
      • Highly contested, but passed by Congress
  • Marshall Plan
    • US should aid countries that are suffering because of WWII
      • Provide food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild the countries
    • Supported by Congress after the Soviets took control of Czechoslovakia
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift
  • US and Soviets clashed over control of Germany
    • Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak and divided
    • US wanted to let Germany reunite
  • Soviets continued to control West Berlin
    • Cut off all traffic to West Berlin unless the Allies gave up the idea of unifying Germany
    • US and Britain flew in supplies
  • NATO
    • Blockade of Berlin caused Western nations to fear Soviet action
    • Created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
      • If you attack one member of NATO, all will retaliate
  • Warsaw Pact
    • Soviets saw NATO as a threat, so they created their own alliance
    • Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania
cold war divides the world
Cold War divides the world
  • 1961 - Germans build a wall to divide East and West Berlin (symbolized the division around the world)
  • India chose to remain neutral
  • China sided with NATO
  • US and Soviets had nuclear weapons
    • Worked at creating even more powerful weaponry (fusion rather than fission)
  • Eisenhower’s secretary of state (Dulles) threatened that if the Soviets ever attacked, that the US would retaliate immediately
  • Both countries were continually on the edge of going to war
    • Strengthened the military, stockpiled weapons
inspiration from the cold war
Inspiration from the Cold War
  • The Cold War spurred a desire for improved science and technology
    • Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)
    • Sputnik and other satellites
  • CIA began using high-altitude spy planes
third world
Third World
  • Third world - countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa
    • US, Soviets and Chinese all wanted influence on the governments of these countries
  • Nonaligned nations
    • Did not want to become involved in the Cold War, wanted to be neutral
    • Some ended up taking sides
conflicts in latin america
Conflicts in Latin America
  • Latin American countries were struggling
    • Rapid industrialization, population growth, growing gape between rich and poor
    • Looked for aid from both US and Soviets
      • US supported leaders who protected US businesses, but were often oppressive
      • Soviets supported revolutionary and nationalistic movements
conflicts in latin america1
Conflicts in Latin America
  • Cuban Revolution
    • Fidel Castro led a revolution to overthrow Cuba’s dictator, but became a dictator himself
    • Took over US mills and refineries, so US put an embargo on all trade
    • Cuba turned to the Soviets for aid
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Soviets believed that US would not be able to stop Soviet expansion in Latin America
    • Khrushchev built 42 missile sites in Cuba
    • Khrushchev would remove the missiles if the US promised to not invade Cuba
    • Cuba became dependent on Soviet aid
soviets in eastern europe
Soviets in Eastern Europe
  • Soviets kept a firm grip on its satellite countries
    • They could not grow/develop on their own - had to meet the needs of the Soviets
    • Satellite countries began protesting, and China was becoming a threat
  • Destalinization
    • After Stalin’s death, Khrushchev wanted to get rid of the memory of Stalin
      • Toppled statues, denounced Stalin for killing and imprisoning innocent Soviets
    • Khrushchev wanted a change in how the Soviet Union dealt with capitalist countries
      • “peaceful competition
protests against the soviets
Protests against the Soviets
  • Satellite countries were not satisfied
  • Hungary
    • People began protesting
    • Imre Nagy formed a new government
      • Promised elections and that he would force Soviet troops to leave
    • Soviet troops arrived, overwhelmed the protestors and executed Nagy
protests against the soviets1
Protests against the Soviets
  • Khrushchev lost prestige after the Cuban Missile Crisis, replaced by Brezhnev
    • Removed right to free speech and worship
    • Government censored all published material
    • Would not tolerate any form of dissent
  • Alexander Dubcek - Czech leader responded by loosening his censorship laws
    • Prague Spring - new ideas were allowed to bloom
  • Brezhnev had forces from the Warsaw Pact invade Czechoslovakia
    • Claimed it was to keep countries from rejecting communism
soviets and china split
Soviets and China split
  • China was committed to communism
    • 1950 - Mao and Stalin signed a 30-year treaty of friendship
  • Friendship did not last
    • Chinese refused to follow Soviet leadership, began to spread their form of communism to Africa and Asia
    • Khrushchev then refused to share nuclear secrets, and then ended economic aid
d tente
  • End of Brinkmanship
    • 1970s - US and Soviets were no longer involved in a series of crises that threatened nuclear war
    • Soviets stepped down from a confrontation at sea
    • President Johnson became involved in the Vietnam War
  • US turns to détente
    • US chose to avoid direct confrontation with the Soviets after the country’s reaction to Vietnam
    • President Nixon wanted to reduce tensions between the two countries
      • Wanted to work with China and Russia
salt talks
SALT talks
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  • Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I treaty
    • 5 year agreement
    • Limited number of intercontinental ballistics and submarine-launched missiles
    • President Carter was unhappy with Soviet actions (harsh treatment of protestors)
    • Soviets invaded Afghanistan - Congress refused to ratify SALT II
d tente1
  • Collapse of the détente
    • More countries began creating nuclear weapons
  • Reagan took office
    • Very anti-communist
    • Increased defense spending
    • Put military and economic pressure on the Soviets
    • Created Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to protect from enemy missiles
china korea vietnam
China, Korea, Vietnam
  • Complete the worksheet
conflicts in the middle east
Conflicts in the Middle East
  • Clash over Western and Islamic values
  • Iran
    • Shah Pahlavi (Iran’s leader) strengthened ties to Western cultures, and weakened the influence of ayatollahs
    • Ayatollah Khomeini encouraged riots and took over the government
      • Strongly anti-US
      • Very militant style of Islamic government, attacked US Embassy
        • Took 60 people hostage for 444 days
conflicts in the middle east1
Conflicts in the Middle East
  • Iraq
    • Saddam Hussein ran a secular government
    • Iran and Iraq went to war in 1980
      • US supported both sides - didn’t want a change in power
      • Soviets supported Iraq
  • Afghanistan
    • Soviet influence began increasing in the 1950s
      • 1979 - Muslims revolted and Soviets invaded
      • Soviets were stuck in Afghanistan, fighting troops supported by the US
        • US considered the Soviets a threat to oil supplies
  • Describe the relationship between the US and Soviets after WWII
  • Compare/Contrast US and Soviet ways of thinking for politics and economics
  • Was the Iron Curtain necessary?
  • Why were NATO and the Warsaw Pact created?
  • Why would some countries decide to remain neutral?
  • What did we gain from the Cold War?
  • Were we safer during brinkmanship?
  • Why was the Third World important during the Cold War?
  • What effect did the Cuban Missile Crisis have on the Cold War?
  • Why did the Soviet Union want to keep Hungary as a satellite?
  • What is the difference between brinkmanship and détente?
  • What happened at the SALT talks?
  • Could the US have gained Ayatollah Khomeini’s support? Why/Why not?
  • How did the Cold War contribute to Jiang Jieshi’s survival?
  • Compare/Contrast China’s promised to Tibet with the Soviet Union’s promises to eastern Europe
  • What is the importance of the communes?
  • Describe the Cultural Revolution and its effect on society.
  • What was result of the Korean War?
  • Compare/Contrast the Vietnamese Nationalists and Communists with the Chinese Nationalists and Communists.
  • Why did the US get involved in Vietnam?
  • Are we safer today or during the Cold War?
study guide essay test
Study Guide (Essay Test)
  • Iron Curtain - What was it? Why did it exist? What are the benefits and weaknesses? Was it necessary?
  • Relationship between US and Soviets - What weakened it? How did the relationship change during the Cold War? What event(s) almost came to war? What effect did the Cuban Missile Crisis have on the relationship?
  • What changes did Mao Zedong make in China? What was one of the major changes? How did his actions benefit/weaken the country? What effect did the Cultural Revolution have?
  • What is brinkmanship? What caused it? What effect did it have on society? IYO-was it good or bad?