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Chapter Twelve. Effective Strategic Management: Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship and New Venture Creation. Learning Objectives. TRANSPARENCY-99. After studying this chapter, you should have a good understanding of:.

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chapter twelve


Effective Strategic Management:Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship and New Venture Creation

after studying this chapter you should have a good understanding of

Learning Objectives


After studying this chapter, you should have a good understanding of:
  • The importance of opportunity recognition in the venture development process
  • How strategic concepts contribute to the competitive advantages of new ventures and small businesses
  • The role of product champions and autonomous strategic behaviors in internal corporate venturing
  • How corporations develop an internal environment that promotes entrepreneurial development
  • How an entrepreneurial orientation can enhance a firm’s efforts to develop promising new venture initiatives
  • The pitfalls associated with new venture strategies and corporate entrepreneurship


Techniques to Stimulate Creativity

Exhibit 12.1

Sources: Gundry, L.K., Kickul, J.R., & Prather, C.W. 1994. Building the creative organization. Organization Dynamics: 22-37; Mackie, K. 1998. Ford RAPIDS helping UT departments streamline work processes. On Campus, April 14. Yaqub, R.M. 2000. The play’s the thing. Worth, November: 116-123.

all small companies by industry

Agricultural Services (2%) 115,000

Retail Trade (20%)1,094,000

Services (40%)2,215,000

Wholesale Trade (7.4%)410,000

Transportation, Communications, and Public Utilities (4%)217,000

Construction (12%)662,000

Mining (0.4%) 20,000

Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate (8%) 457,000

Manufacturing (6.%) 329,000


All Small Companies*, By Industry

Exhibit 12.2

Source: SBA’s Office of Advocacy, based on Data Provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, statistics of U.S. Businesses. (Percentages don’t add to 100% because of rounding.)

* Businesses with 500 or fewer employees in 1997 (rounded)

alternatives to traditional financing




Allows a start-up to hold on to its cash and minimize commitments to equipment or real estate that might need updating as the company grows (or shrinks). Leasing costs are deductible as a business expense.

A traditional non-cash means of exchanging products or services. Bartering has enjoyed a resurgence in popularity because exchange services that are now available on the Internet are facilitating more barter transactions.


One of the fastest-growing techniques for financing start-ups; number one among women entrepreneurs. It’s like a bank loan without the lengthy approval process. But the high interest rates that some cards charge could make it risky.

Credit Cards

Suppliers that let you pay for goods or services in 60 or 90 days rather than after only 10 to 30 days are, in effect, financing your purchase. Some suppliers will agree to this because they need your business as badly as you need their credit.

Supplier Financing


Factoring is a method of raising cash by selling accounts receivables to a third party or financing against the value of receivables. It’s generally only used for short term cash needs and often comes with a hefty interest charge.


Alternatives to Traditional Financing

Exhibit 12.3

Source: Fraser, J. A. 1998. A hitchhiker’s guide to capital resources. Inc. Magazine, February: 74-82; Owens, T. 1990. Getting financing in 1990. Small Business Reports, June:

3m s rules for successful innovation



Don’t kill a project

Managers exhibit patience in nurturing projects. Ideas can be kept alive by individual staffers who believe in a project, even if it can’t find a home in one of 3M’s divisions.

Tolerate failure

If at first you don’t succeed, 3M believes that you should be able to try and try again. Thus, it encourages experimentation and risk taking on projects, even when the outcome is unclear. This strategy has helped 3M achieve one of its key objectives: obtain 25-30 percent of sales from products introduced in the past 5 years.

Keep divisions small

Divisions are split up if they get too big, say, over $250 million in sales. 3M believes its divisions should be granted autonomy and that division managers should know staffers by their first names.

Motivate the champions

Product champions are challenged to be innovative. When successful, they are rewarded with salaries and promotions. If a product takes off, a champion forms an action team and may get to run his or her own product group.

Stay close to customers

Product development is not conducted in isolation. Customers are often invited to join 3M researchers and marketers to brainstorm about uses for a technology and new product concepts.

Share the wealth

Divisions and product groups do not have an exclusive claim on the technologies they develop. An atmosphere of open communication helps everyone benefit from the technological insights and breakthroughs that others at 3M discover.


3M’s Rules for Successful Innovation

Exhibit 12.4

Sources: Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. 1997. Built to Last. NewYork: HarperBusiness; Graham, A. B. 1996. The Learning Organization: Managing Knowledge for Business Success; Mitchell, R. 1989. Masters of innovation. Business Week, April 10: 58-63; Osborn, T. 1988. The new product champions: How 3M manages for innovation. Marketing communications, 13(11): 17-22.

dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation




Independent action by an individual or team aimed at bringing forth a business concept or vision and carrying it through to completion.


A willingness to introduce novelty through experimentation and creative processes aimed at developing new products and services as well as new processes.

A forward-looking perspective characteristic of a marketplace leader that has the foresight to seize opportunities in anticipation of future demand.


An intense effort to outperform industry rivals. It is characterized by a combative posture or an aggressive response aimed at improving position or overcoming a threat in a competitive marketplace.

Competitive Aggressiveness

Making decisions and taking action without certain knowledge of probable outcomes; some undertakings may also involve making substantial resource commitments in the process of venturing forward.

Risk taking


Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation

Exhibit 12.5

Source: Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. 1991. A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Fall: 7-25; Lumpkin, G. G., & Dess, G. G. 1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-172; Miller, D. 1983. The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29: 770-791.

continuum of radical and incremental innovations

Online Auction Exchanges

Internet Browser

Fiber- optic Cable

Bubble Wrap



Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Frozen Yogurt

Laparoscopic “Keyhole” Surgery


Speech Recognition Software


Continuum of Radical and Incremental Innovations

Exhibit 12.6