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The Skeletal System. Major Functions of the Skeletal System. Shape and support for the body Protects inner organs Skull – brain Ribs – heart and lungs Muscles attach to bones Creates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the marrow Stores calcium and phosphorus.

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Presentation Transcript
major functions of the skeletal system
Major Functions of the Skeletal System
  • Shape and support for the body
  • Protects inner organs
    • Skull – brain
    • Ribs – heart and lungs
  • Muscles attach to bones
  • Creates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the marrow
  • Stores calcium and phosphorus
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Not completely smooth
    • Bumps, rough edges, pits, holes
  • Covered by periosteum
    • Tough, tight fitting membrane
    • Contains blood vessels, allows oxygen to reach inner bone, allows for wastes to leave
bone marrow
Bone Marrow
  • Fatty tissue found within bones
  • Produces red blood cells
    • 2,000,000/sec
  • Produces white blood cells
    • Not as fast as red
  • Produces platelets
cartilage
Cartilage
  • Thick, smooth layer of tissue
  • Covers ends of bones
  • Does not contain blood vessels or minerals
  • Absorbs shock, reduces friction
  • Painful when it wears away
    • Bones rub together
    • Arthritis develops
bone development
Bone Development
  • Osteoblasts
    • Bone forming cells
      • Deposit calcium and phosphorus (hardness)
  • Osteoclasts
    • Cells that break down bone (normal)
  • Bones are always being broken down and reformed
joints
Joints
  • Where two or more bones meet
  • Held together by ligaments
    • Tough bands of tissue
  • Many joints held together by more than one ligament
    • Ex. knee
types of joints
Types of Joints
  • Immovable joints
    • Allow little or no movement
  • Movable joints
    • Allow wide range of movements
immovable joints
Immovable Joints
  • Includes joints in skull and pelvis
movable joints
Movable Joints
  • Pivot
    • One bone rotates in the ring of another
    • Ex. Turning your head

http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/940/672504.JPG

slide11

Ball and socket

    • One bone has a cup like cavity
    • Another bone has a rounded end that fits inside
    • Ex. Hips, shoulders

http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/NewAnatomy/images/bshoulder.JPG

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Hinge

    • Back and forth movement (like hinges on a door)
    • Less flexible, more stable
    • Ex. Elbows, knees, fingers

http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/940/672450.JPG

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Gliding

    • One bone slides over another
    • Back and forth motion
    • Most frequently used
    • Ex. Wrists, ankles, vertebrae

http://www.teachpe.com/images/anatomy/gliding_joint.jpg

bone shapes
Bone Shapes
  • Short –toes (phalanges)
    • Small precise movements
    • Support weight
  • Long – legs & arms, length of fingers
    • Strong
    • Support weight
    • Allow movement
bone shapes1
Bone Shapes
  • Flat – ribs, sternum & shoulder
    • Protect organs
  • Irregular – vertebrae & inner ear
    • Support - vertebrae
    • Hearing – inner ear