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Review – Objectives Transitioning 4-5. Spikes can be detected from many neurons near the electrode tip. What are some ways to determine which spikes belong to which neurons? Describe how a tetrode helps isolate spikes

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Review objectives transitioning 4 5
Review – ObjectivesTransitioning 4-5

  • Spikes can be detected from many neurons near the electrode tip. What are some ways to determine which spikes belong to which neurons?

  • Describe how a tetrode helps isolate spikes

  • What kind of probes are better for current source density of LFPs and what kind are better for single unit isolation (of spiking activity)?

Review objectives transitioning 4 51
Review – ObjectivesTransitioning 4-5

  • What does a Fourier analysis do to a time-varying signal, like LFPs or ECoG? (Why would a neuroscientist use it?)

  • Describe an assumption that is made about the signal you process with Fourier analysis. (p.105 and footnote)

  • Name the two parameters that are orthogonal (i.e. independent) in a Fourier analysis. (Related to previous question)

  • Describe a solution that allows both of the independent parameters to be characterized (p. 106)

Review objectives cycle 5
Review – ObjectivesCycle 5

  • Give the term for the magnitude of a given frequency band – one output of a Fourier transform.

  • An increase in magnitude of the Fourier transform can arise from two separate changes in the signal. Name them. (this relates to the independence question)

  • Brain oscillations occur at specific frequency bands during specific behavioural states. Collectively, what relationship do the observed bands have? Shown in figure 5.1

  • List several reasons the brain might have so many oscillations (p. 114)

Review objectives cycle 51
Review – ObjectivesCycle 5

  • An EEG signal shows a power-law relationship between what two parameters?

  • Define (or draw) white pink and brown noise and describe ways in which they differ.

  • Select the type of noise associated with cortical activity, and give and example of when that activity deviates from ‘pink’.

Cycle 6 oscillations and synchrony

Cycle 6: Oscillations and Synchrony

What is an oscillator?

Name two types of oscillators

Components of oscillations

Define differences between types of oscillators:

Oscillators can be considered at the neuron or neural population level. Give a description at each level.

Cycle 6 oscillations and synchrony1

Cycle 6: Oscillations and Synchrony

How could resonance at varying frequencies be accomplished? p. 144

What is the low-information problem and what is a neuron’s default state, giving examples.

Define Synchrony, including the concept of a ‘time constant’.

How does synchrony differ across classes of oscillators?

Cycle 6 oscillations and synchrony2

Cycle 6: Oscillations and Synchrony

Define stochastic resonance, providing two ‘scenarios’ of how it could operate in the brain.

Describe features of cell assemblies, and why their action may be useful in encoding patterns.

Describe how synchrony is efficient

Cycle 7 thalamocortical circuit
Cycle 7: thalamocortical circuit

  • Describe the ion channel dynamics responsible for thalamocortical oscillations. Know the specific role of It, Ih, Na, and Ca++ currents in producing the delta rhythms in thalamocortical cells.