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Great Society & Civil Rights Movement. The New Frontier & Great Society. Kennedy’s vision of progress – medical care for aged, rebuild urban areas, education Practiced deficit spending to stimulate economy Increase defense budget by 20%.

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the new frontier great society
The New Frontier & Great Society
  • Kennedy’s vision of progress – medical care for aged, rebuild urban areas, education
  • Practiced deficit spending to stimulate economy
  • Increase defense budget by 20%

Increased minimum wage, extension of unemployment insurance

  • Established Peace Corps – volunteer assistance to developing nations
  • Alliance for Progress – aid to Latin America ($12 billion)
  • Investment in space program, race to the moon (Neil Armstrong 1969)

Johnson took over after Kennedy’s assassination

  • Convinced Congress to cut $10 billion in taxes: people spent more, businesses & tax revenue grew!
  • “War on Poverty” – Economic Opportunity Act: youth programs, small business loans, job training, Head Start
  • Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination based on sex, religion, national origin, race

Won big (1964) vs. Barry Goldwater (fear of nukes, not escalating war in Vietnam)

  • Great Society: end poverty & racial injustice, higher standard of living & equal opportunity
  • w/ support from democratic led Congress, Johnson able to push through laws on education, Medicare & Medicaid, Housing & Urban Development, immigration, environment

Warren Court: rulings protected rights of the accused: illegally attained evidence couldn’t be used, legal counsel to those who couldn’t afford it, lawyer present during questioning, rights read before questioning

  • Impact of Great Society: extended power of federal gov’t, poverty fell from 21% to 11%, funding his programs increased federal deficit
civil rights movement 1950s 60s
Civil Rights Movement 1950s & 60s
  • Civil Rights Act (1875) declared unconstitutional 1883
  • Plessyv. Ferguson (1896): Supreme court ruled separate but equal didn’t violate 14th Amendment
  • Southern states had passed Jim Crow laws, black facilities were always inferior
  • WWII helped set stage for movement, labor shortage, 1 million African Americans joined military

Desegregation led by NAACP & Charles Houston

  • Focused on inequality in separated schools & placed Thurgood Marshall as leader of council
  • Morgan v. Virginia (1964) – unconstitutional mandating of segregated seating on interstate buses

Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka): segregated schools unequal (unanimous decision)

  • Reaction was mixed & faced resistance in South (Miss & GA)
  • Arkansas 1st southern state to admit African Americans to state university w/o order
  • Governor ordered national guard to turn students away at Central High School
  • federal judge ordered them in (Little Rock Nine)

Eisenhower placed Ark. guard under federal control

  • Rosa Parks (1955) arrested for not giving up seat on bus for white man
  • African American leaders organized a bus boycott led by Martin Luther King Jr.

Boycott lasted 381 days until Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation in 1956

  • MLK based teachings & practices on Jesus, Thoreau, Phillip Randolph, Gandhi
  • joined Southern Christian Leadership Conference that organized other protests & demonstrations

1960 students from NC A & T organized sit-in at Woolworth lunch counter covered by media

  • Movement spread, students formed picket lines at national chains that practiced segregation (48 cities, 11 states)

1961 freedom riders took a 2 bus trip across south to challenge interstate segregated facilities

  • Bus One was met by hostile mob in Birmingham, Alabama (chains, brass knuckles, pistols)
  • Bus Two was followed out of Anniston, Alabama
  • tire blew & fire bomb thrown in

New group joined in Birmingham & were beaten by police & driven to Tenn but returned

  • Bus driver refused to take them out of fear & riders protested in white only facility for 18hrs until call from Robert Kennedy

Alabama officials promised protection but riders faced violence in Montgomery, Alabama

  • President Kennedy used US Marshalls to protect them on their journey & ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel facilities
  • James Meredith won court case for admittance into Ole Miss but Governor refused to let him register

Kennedy ordered marshals to escort him

  • Sep. 30, 1962 riots broke out
  • 1963 March on Washington: MLK – “I have a dream” influenced public opinion to support civil rights laws, power of non-violent mass protest

Birmingham, Alabama considered most segregated city, King flew in & led demonstrations

  • King was arrested on April 12th, 1963
  • posted bail & organized a march on May 2 (over 900 arrested)

May 3rd another march, camera caught brutality

  • Continued protests, boycotts & negative media convinced officials to desegregate & Kennedy to push for new civil rights legislation
  • Kennedy ordered troops to force Gov Wallace to desegregate Univ. of Ala

Convinced Congress to pass Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination, desegregated public accommodations

  • Volunteers went to Miss to register blacks to vote in 1964 known as Freedom Summer
  • 3 murdered in Neshoba
  • Jimmy Lee Jackson shot & killed in Selma, Ala

King organized 50 mile march (March 1965) demonstrators beaten as violence erupted, media captured mayhem

  • Marchers organized again on March 21st w/ federal protection
  • Voting Rights Act (1965): outlaws literacy tests, federal registrars sent to South

De facto segregation still existed & more difficult to change (economic & social power)

  • Urban blacks lived in decaying slums, rent to landlords who failed to comply w/ ordinances, schools deteriorated, unemployment 2x whites
  • Urban riots erupted in major cities throughout 60s (100, 1967)
  • Worst was Watts in LA (1965)

Malcolm X rose w/in Nation of Islam

  • taught that blacks should separate from white society & be able to defend themselves against white violence
  • Went to Mecca & broke w/ Nation of Islam & changed some of his views, assassinated Feb. 1965

Black Power movement grew led by Stokely Carmichael who was arrested & beaten in Miss

  • Black Panther Party established in Oct 1966
  • Civil Rights Movement in Virginia: Oliver Hill – Legal defense team in VA
  • massive resistance to ruling, closed some schools, established private academies, white flight from urban schools

King assassinated on April 4, 1968

  • March 1968 the Kerner Commission issued report on urban violence - named 1 cause: white racism
  • helped end de jure segregation in schools, housing, transportation; passed Civil Rights legislation, graduation rates rose, pride & identity, increased voters/elected officials, lowered “colored bar” in entertainment
image sources in order
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