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The Rise of Democratic Ideas. Modern World History. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome. 2000 BCE - Greeks formed cities Different types of governments established Monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy. Athens. Democratic rule Citizens decided government decisions

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the rise of democratic ideas
The Rise of Democratic Ideas
  • Modern World History
the legacy of ancient greece and rome
The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome
  • 2000 BCE - Greeks formed cities
  • Different types of governments established
  • Monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy
  • Democratic rule
  • Citizens decided government decisions
  • Citizens included male residents
  • Yearly election of 3 nobles to rule the city-state and after 1 year of service, nobles joined larger council of advisers
  • 600 BCE- economic problems arise
  • Outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled farmers' debt
  • Established four classes of citizens based on wealth
  • Created Council of Four Hundred
  • Increased participation in government
  • Introduced more reforms circa 508 BCE
  • Reorganized the assembly to balance power between rich and poor
  • Increased power of assembly
  • Created the Council of Five Hundred
  • Led Athens 461-429 BCE
  • Strengthened Greek democracy
  • Athens evolved into a direct democracy
  • Reason and logic to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality
  • 1) the universe (land, sea, sky) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws
  • 2) people can understand these laws through logic and reason
  • Socrates; Plato; Aristotle
  • Natural laws
  • 1000 - 500 BCE Romans defeated Romans and Etruscans for control of the Italian peninsula
  • 509 BCE Roman aristocrats overthrew a harsh king and established a republic
  • Early republic - two groups struggled for power
  • Patricians: aristocratic landowners, held most of the power, inherited power and social status, claimed that their ancestry gave them the authority to make laws for Rome its people
  • Plebeians: common farmers, artisans, merchants, citizens of Rome with the right to vote, barred by law from holding most important government positions
  • Plebeians forced creation of a written law code
  • 451 BCE - the Twelve Tables were publicly displayed and established that free citizens had the right to protection of the law and laws would be fairly administered
republican government
Republican Government
  • Separate branches: two consuls commanded the army and directed the government, served one year term
  • Senate: patricians, controlled foreign and financial policies and advise the consuls
  • In times of crisis, republic provided for a dictator - absolute power to make laws and command the army, limited to six month term
  • Expansion through conquest and trade created problems
  • 27 BCE Rome came under the rule of an emperor
roman law
Roman Law
  • Based on principles of reason and justice and protect citizens and their property
  • All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law
  • A person was considered innocent until proven guilty
  • The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
  • Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
justinian code
Justinian Code
  • 528 A.D. Emperor Justinian ordered the compilation of all Roman laws since the earlier code
  • Consisted of four works: The Code - 5,000 Roman laws, The Digest - summary of legal opinions, The Institutes - textbook for law students, The Novollae - containedlaws passed after 534