The Suez Crisis and the Six-Day War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. The Suez Crisisand the Six-Day War IAFS/JWST 3650

  2. Announcements • Jewish Studies Mix-and-Mingle: April 10 at 6PM at Illegal Pete's (CU students and graduate students only)RSVP toMeghan.Zibby@colorado.edu

  3. Announcements • See revised syllabus (in email) for reading assignments • Thursday: come prepared to discuss Dayan reading • Chester office hours this week: Fri 2-3 • Thu, April 11: In-class paper workshop

  4. Paper Workshop • Email draft to group by Tues 5pm

  5. Outline • Post-independence Israeli security concerns • Palestinian refugees • 1956 Suez Crisis • 1950s-1960s Palestinian politics • 1967 War/Six-Day War

  6. Israeli Security Concerns • Fear of “encirclement” • Egyptian restrictions on shipping in Suez Canal, Straits of Tiran

  7. Israeli Security Concerns Ben-Gurion • Activist stance (PM David Ben-Gurion): establish that Israel could not be defeated • Moderate stance (FM Moshe Sharett): force one of several options Sharett

  8. Palestinian Refugees • Arab insistence on “right of return” • Israeli passage of “law of return,” increasing Jewish population • Arabs in Israel (~170,000 in 1950) subject to land confiscation and banishment

  9. Palestinian Refugees • Many Arab refugees outside Israel remained in refugee camps long-term • Lebanese, Syria, Egyptian refusal to grant citizenship (vs Jordan) • Concerns about resettlement

  10. Suez Crisis • 1955: Egyptian leader Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser accepts Soviet military aid • British fears of shift in Middle East power dynamics • July 1956: Nasser’s nationalization of Suez canal

  11. Suez Crisis • British threats re canal • Late Oct/early Nov 1956: Disastrous military operation to regain canal carried out by Britain, France, and Israel

  12. Suez Crisis • Israeli goals: Sinai and Sharm al-Sheikh • US reaction: economic measures to force British withdrawal

  13. Suez Crisis Repercussions • Egypt: Nasser remained in power, retained canal • Britain: no longer a world power • Israel: military victory, UN warning re interference with Straits of Tiran

  14. Palestinian Politics Shukeiri • 1964: Arab League est. Palestinian Liberation Organization (led by Ahmad Shukeiri) • Haj Amin: PLO “colonialist, Zionist conspiracy” • Syrian desire for more militant action Haj Amin in 1948

  15. Fatah • Established 1958 • Gaza-based • Military action, before Israel gained upper hand via nukes, as necessary precursor for political action

  16. The 1967 War/Six-Day War • Early 1967: increase in Fatah attacks on Israel • 7 Apr: Syria-Israel clash in Golan Heights • 21 May: Egyptian closure of Straits of Tiran

  17. The 1967 War/Six-Day War • Defense Minister Moshe Dayan push for military response • 5 Jun: Israeli airstrikes destroy Egyptian air force Dayan

  18. The 1967 War/Six-Day War • Israeli occupation of Jerusalem’s Old City, West Bank, Sinai Peninsula up to canal, Golan Heights • Additional 100,000 Palestinian refugees to Jordan

  19. Significance • Continuing negotiations and conflict over 1967 lines • Arab governments primarily interested in Palestinians as means to demonstrate anti-Israeli militancy • Palestinian militants increasingly independent of Arab states

  20. Significance • Clear Israeli military superiority • Israeli feeling of having broken “encirclement”