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  1. Patterns and Performances in Speech and Music Mark Liberman University of Pennsylvaniahttp://ling.upenn.edu/~myl

  2. Skip-a to my Lou (Ruth Crawford Seeger, American Folk Songs for Children, 1938) Language and Poetic Form

  3. “…this song has hundreds of stanzas and is always picking up new ones. One collector alone gives 150, from which the above 22 were selected as encouragement to further improvisation."  E               C               E               G               (pitches)  X               X               X               X               (1/4 notes) X       X       X       X       X       X       X       X       (1/8 notes) X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   (1/16 notes)little  red     wa-     gon     pain-   ted    blue E               C               E               G               (pitches)  X               X               X               X               (1/4 notes) X       X       X       X       X       X       X       X       (1/4 notes) X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   (1/16 notes)pig      in the par-    lour    what'll  I      do cat      in the but-ter milk    lapping up    cream rab-bit  in the corn    field   big as  a      mule hogs in the  po-ta- to  patch   rooting up     corn dad's    old    hat      and    ma- ma's old   shoe Language and Poetic Form

  4. You can close your eyes (James Taylor, 1971) X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX Well, the sun is sure- ly sink- in' down, X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX but the moon is slow- ly ris- ing. X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX So this old world must still be spinnin' round, X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX and I still love you. Language and Poetic Form

  5. (refrain) X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | So close your eyes, X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | XXXX | XXXX | You can close your eyes, it's all right. X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X I don't know no love songs, . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X | XXXX and I can't sing the blues an- y-more. . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X But I can sing this song, . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X | X XXX | and you can sing this song when I'm gone Language and Poetic Form

  6. “Syncopation in Rock,” David Temperley. Popular Music 18(1), 1999. Language and Poetic Form

  7. Language and Poetic Form

  8. Jodies • Rhymed couplets • used in counting cadence while marching • traditional or improvised • History? • References back to Civil War • Attributed to Pvt. Willie Duckworth Fort Slocum, N.Y., May 1944 “Duckworth cadence” Language and Poetic Form

  9. Cadence calls are songs (usually delivered in an eight count movement) that the military sing when marching or running. The songs require a Caller, who normally sets the pace and leads the formation. The caller starts each line on his left foot. The formation then repeats the line, starting on the left foot. If everything goes well, the caller and the formation develop a sort of rapport. The effect can be mesmerizing. The way a unit sounds while running or marching tends to reflect on that unit's morale and leadership. -Drill Sgt. Timothy P. Dunnigan, US Army Language and Poetic Form

  10. Who’s Jody? The guy back home who has the things a soldier leaves behind: Got a letter in the mail Go to war or go to jail I used to date a beauty queen Now I date my M-16 Ain't no use in lookin' down Ain't no discharge on the ground Ain't no use in going back Jody's got your Cadillac Ain't no use in calling home Jody's got your girl and gone Ain't no use in feeling blue Jody's got your sister too Language and Poetic Form

  11. Examples Traditional call and response couplet Couplets embedded in other cadence counts WWII era (?) Role in group running Many verses, old and new stories boasts complaints, teasing, etc. Language and Poetic Form

  12. Other traditional couplets Content can be serious or silly, subversive or gung-ho.Syllable counts range from 7 to 11. Jesse James said before he died There's five things that he wanted to ride Bicycle, tricycle, automobile A one-legged hooker and a ferris wheel Jesse James said in his final will He had five things that he wanted to kill A lion, a tiger, a kangaroo A long haired hippie, and a D.I. too And if'n he could kill just one He'd kill the instructor, let the hippie run I don't know but I been told If you die you don't get old If I die in the combat zone Box me up and ship me home Birdie birdie in the sky Dropped some whitewash in my eye I won't fuss and I won't cry I'm just glad that cows can't fly. Language and Poetic Form

  13. Acoustic and metrical patterns? D D B G B B D x x x x x x x x x x x x Ain't no use in go...ing home Language and Poetic Form

  14. Acoustic Pattern Language and Poetic Form

  15. Where are the claps? Language and Poetic Form

  16. Line 2 Language and Poetic Form

  17. Line 3 Language and Poetic Form

  18. Line 4 Language and Poetic Form

  19. Another couplet Language and Poetic Form

  20. Line 2 Language and Poetic Form

  21. Line 3 Language and Poetic Form

  22. Line 4 Language and Poetic Form

  23. “Habanera rhythm” (from contradanza habanera): 8 beats divided as 3+3+2 or 3+(1+2)+2 or (1+2)+(1+2)+2 o o o o o o o1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 ...o o o o o o o o oo o o o o o o o o o o Musical notations: Common theme: Positions 1,4,7 of 8 are strong1 & 4 may be “resolved” onto 2 & 5 Language and Poetic Form

  24. Slippin’ and a-Slidin’ (Little Richard)Habanera rhythm in the brass Language and Poetic Form

  25. o o o o o o o1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 ...o o o o o o o o oo o o o o o o o o o o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o slippin and a slid- in peepin and a hid- in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 o o o o o o o o o been told a long time ago Language and Poetic Form

  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8o o o oo o o o o o oo o o o o o o o o oI been told baby you been bold I won’t be your fool no more Language and Poetic Form

  27. You can close your eyes (James Taylor, 1971) X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX Well, the sun is sure- ly sink- in' down, X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX but the moon is slow- ly ris- ing. X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX So this old world must still be spinnin' round, X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | X XXX | XXX and I still love you. Language and Poetic Form

  28. (refrain) X . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | So close your eyes, X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X . | XXXX | XXXX | You can close your eyes, it's all right. X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X I don't know no love songs, . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X | XXXX and I can't sing the blues an- y-more. . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X But I can sing this song, . | X . X . X . X . | X . X . X . X | X XXX | and you can sing this song when I'm gone Language and Poetic Form