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World history and the global organization of knowledge Patrick Manning University of Pittsburgh World History Center at the University of Pittsburgh Opening Ceremonies October 16, 2008 Priorities for the World History Center Graduate study in World History

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world history and the global organization of knowledge

World history and the global organization of knowledge

Patrick Manning

University of Pittsburgh

World History Center at the University of Pittsburgh

Opening Ceremonies

October 16, 2008

priorities for the world history center
Priorities for the World History Center
  • Graduate study in World History
      • In cooperation with regional and thematic programs
  • Global Studies
      • Multidisciplinary teaching & research in historical context
  • Teacher outreach
      • Support for secondary teaching in World History
  • Research, Conferences, & Publication
      • World History Databank
      • Conferences: Research Agenda; Global History of Science
  • Worldwide Collaboration
      • Visiting scholars; electronic communication
unesco framework for the global academy4
UNESCO – framework for the global academy
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Paris, 1946)
      • International Council of Scientific Unions (Natural Science)
      • International Social Science Council (Social Science)
      • International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (Humanities)
      • plus sections for
          • Education
          • Communications
          • Culture

Founding director: Julian Huxley (biology, UK, 1946-48)

Robust structure of UNESCO since 1951

julian huxley s vision for unesco
Julian Huxley’s vision for UNESCO

“The general philosophy of Unesco should, it seems, be a scientific world humanism, global in extent and evolutionary in background.”

HUMANITIES:

“Unesco cannot be neutral in the face of competing values.”

SOCIAL SCIENCE:

“If Unesco is to have a real social policy, it … must also face up to particular problems which press on the modern world.”

precursors to unesco
Precursors to UNESCO

A. Congresses of scientific disciplines (mathematics, chemistry, philosophy – late 19th century)

B. International Association of Academies (1899-1919)

C. International Research Council (Brussels, 1919-1931)

International Academic Union (1919-)

D. International Council of Scientific Unions (1931-1946)

early national academies in science and humanities
Early National Academies in science and humanities
  • Italian academies
  • Royal Academy (England)
  • Académie française
  • Russian Academy of Sciences (1724)
  • National Academy of Sciences (US, 1863)
  • American Council of Learned Societies (US, 1919)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences (1956)
natural sciences international council for science icsu
Natural Sciences: International Council for Science (ICSU)
  • Astronomy(1919). International Astronomical Union
  • Biology (1919). International Union of Biological Sciences
  • Chemistry (1919). International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Geophysics (1919). International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
  • Physics (1919). International Union of Pure and Applied Physics
  • Geography (1922). International Geographical Union
  • Radio Science(1922). International Union of Radio Science
  • Mechanics (1924).International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
  • Soil Sciences(1924). International Union of Soil Sciences
  • Microbiology (1927). International Union of Microbiological Societies

(see next slide for post-war admissions)

natural sciences continued
Natural Sciences (continued):
  • Anthropology (1948).International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences
  • History & Philosophy of Science(1948). International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science
  • Nutritional Sciences(1948). International Union of Nutritional Sciences
  • Psychology (1948). International Union of Psychological Science
  • Mathematics (1950). International Mathematical Union
  • Physiology(1953). International Union of Physiological Sciences
  • Biochemistry (1955). International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • Brain Research(1960). International Brain Research Organization
  • Food Science(1962). International Union of Food Sciences and Technology
  • Geology (1961). International Union of Geological Sciences
  • Biophysics (1961). International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics
  • Pharmacology (1966). International Union of Pharmacology
  • Immunology (1969). International Union of Immunological Societies
  • Toxicology (1980). International Union of Toxicology
social sciences the international social science council issc
Social Sciences:The International Social Science Council (ISSC)
  • Law(1873). International Law Association
  • Geography (1922). International Geographical Union
  • Demography (1927). International Union for the Scientific Study of Population
  • Anthropology (1948). International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences
  • Mental Health(1948). World Federation for Mental Health
  • Political Science(1949). International Political Science Association
  • Economics (1950). International Economic Association
  • Administrative Sciences(1961). International Institute of Administrative Sciences
  • Peace Research(1964). International Peace Research Association
humanities international council for philosophical and humanistic studies icphs
Humanities:International Council for Philosophical and Humanistic Studies (ICPHS)
  • Academies (1919). International Union of Academies
  • History (1926). International Committee of Historical Sciences
  • Linguistics (1928). Permanent International Committee of Linguists
  • Modern Languages(1928). International Federation for Modern Languages & Literatures
  • Prehistory(1932). International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences
  • Anthropology(1948). International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences
  • Classics (1948). International Federation of the Societies of Classical Studies
  • Philosophy (1948). International Federation of Philosophical Societies
  • Religious History(1950). International Association for the History of Religions
  • Art History(1963). International Committee for the History of Art
unesco framework for the global academy12
UNESCO – framework for the global academy

UNESCO has functioned admirably as the global academic coordinating body, far exceeding its predecessors.

But UNESCO has not kept up with:

  • Interdisciplinary connections
  • Area-studies scholarship
  • Global studies beginnings
  • Linkages across the three Councils
unesco framework for the global academy13
UNESCO – framework for the global academy

Proposed research project: a fuller history of international academic organizations, their interplay with each other and with national organizations, and their relationship with the creation of scientific knowledge.

Proposed organizational project: consultation with UNESCO on tensions and weaknesses in its structure, and discussion of possible revision and updates.

the broader context institutions for producing conserving conveying knowledge
The Broader Context: Institutions for producing, conserving, & conveying knowledge
  • Libraries
  • Archives
  • Universities
  • Research institutes
    • Academies
    • Academic congresses
    • Disciplinary associations
      • Publishing houses
      • Academic journals
global organization of historical studies
Global organization of historical studies
  • History relies primarily on independent work of individual scholars
  • Scholars communicate especially through regional, national and sub-disciplinary organizations
  • Global organization of historians exists, but is biased toward study of European history in recent times
  • An opening now exists for global organization and collaboration of world historians
slide16
CISH Comité International des Sciences Historiques(International Committee of Historical Sciences)Congresses
  • Oslo

1933 Warsaw

1938 Zurich

1950 Paris

1955 Rome

1960 Stockholm

  • Vienna

1970 Moscow

1975 San Francisco

1980 Bucharest

1985 Stuttgart

1990 Madrid

1995 Montreal

2000 Oslo

2005 Sydney

2010 Amsterdam

cish international affiliated organizations
CISH – International Affiliated Organizations

TOPICAL AFFILIATES

  • Military History
  • Economic History
  • Educational History
  • Historical Demography
  • International Relations
  • Maritime History
  • Social History
  • Urban History
  • Women’s History
  • [World & Global History]

REGIONAL AFFILIATES

  • Arab Historians, Union of
  • Byzantine Studies
  • Contemporary History of Europe
  • Crusades
  • French Revolution
  • Jewish History
  • Renaissance Studies
  • Roman History & Archaeology
  • Slavic Historical Studies
  • Southeast European Studies
cish national committees
CISH –National Committees
  • 34 European and North American affiliates
  • 12 Asian affiliates
  • 4 Latin American & Caribbean affiliates
  • 4 African affiliates
  • Virtually all European countries plus U.S. and Canada
  • Asia-Pacific (Australia, China, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, S. Korea, Russia, Turkey, Vietnam)
  • Latin America & Caribbean (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru)
  • Africa (Guinea, Morocco, South Africa, Tunisia)
alliances of world historians in the global academy
Alliances of World Historians in the Global Academy
  • World History Association (1982)
  • European Network in Universal and Global History

(founded 2002, first conference 2005)

  • World History Network, Inc. (2004)

NOW IN FORMATION:

  • Asian Association of World Historians

(founded in Tianjin, 4 May 2008)

  • Network of Global and World History Organizations

(founded in Dresden, 2 July 2008)

  • African association of world historians
  • Latin American association of world historians
a vision for the world history center
A Vision for the World History Center
  • Facilitate growth of a global community of world historians
  • Join interdisciplinary Global Studies movement, with emphasis on global historical studies
  • Facilitate links to Natural Sciences and Humanities
  • Support historical studies of global academic organization
  • Participate in discussions on updating the structure of UNESCO and its constituent academic organizations
alliances of world historians in the global academy21
Alliances of World Historians in the Global Academy
  • World historians need a global perspective, and links to global organizations.
  • Maybe by studying global evolution of scholarly societies, world historians can gain a seat at the UNESCO table.