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U.S. History I. Chapter 9 “An Emerging World Power”. U.S. History I. Chapter 9 Section 1 “The Roots of Imperialism”. The Causes of Imperialism Imperialists Seek Economic Benefits Imperialism : the economic and political domination by a strong country over a weaker one

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u s history i

U.S. History I

Chapter 9

“An Emerging World Power”

u s history i1

U.S. History I

Chapter 9 Section 1

“The Roots of Imperialism”

The Causes of Imperialism
    • Imperialists Seek Economic Benefits
      • Imperialism: the economic and political domination by a strong country over a weaker one
      • Extractive Economies: Country who’s raw materials are taken by imperial country-most benefit is to “home” country
      • Protectorate: a country which is technically independent but is under the control of another
    • Imperialists Stress Military Strength
      • Alfred T. Mahan: Wrote: Influence of Sea Power Upon History
    • Imperialists Believe in National Superiority
      • Anglo-Saxonism: the argument that English speaking nations were superior to others
      • Josiah Strong: Minister who sent missions to “civilize” world
      • Social-Darwinism: Life is a competition and only “fittest” survive
      • Frederick Jackson Turner: Open west was “safety valve” for tension in U.S. Now that west was settled, Americans needed new valve
U.S. Power Grows in the Pacific
    • Perry Opens Japan
      • Matthew C. Perry (1853) ordered by President Pierce to force trade between the US and Japan
      • Succeeds when Japanese sees size of fleet as a threat
    • Seward Purchases Alaska (1867) from Russia for $7.2 Million
    • U.S. Influence Grows in Latin America
      • James G. Blaine
        • Pan-Americanism: US and Latin America working together
        • 1889 Pan-American conference
          • Customs union
          • Reduce tariffs
          • Latin countries refused to do these but agreed to create the Commercial Bureau of American Republics (later called the Organization of American States – OAS)
Commodore Perry

“Negotiating” With Japan

Maps: Latin America (Top)

Alaska, Japan, and Hawaii

the united states acquires hawaii
The United States Acquires Hawaii
  • Why Hawaii?
    • Sugarcane
    • Pineapple
    • Hawaii exempt from sugar tariffs
    • Tensions mount between planters and Hawaiians over new constitution
    • McKinley Tariff makes Hawaiian sugar more expensive than American sugar
    • Hawaii’s economy suffers
    • Queen Liliuokalani takes throne 1891
      • Tries to change constitution in 1892
    • Planters back movement to overthrow Queen
    • Aided by the Marines, Planters force Queen Liliuokalani to abdicate the throne (1883)
    • President Cleveland tries to restore Queen to throne
    • Senate refuses to ratify treaty
    • 1898 US annexes Hawaii (After Spanish-American War Began)
section 2 the spanish american war
Section 2: The Spanish-American War
  • Causes of the War
    • The Cuban Rebellion Begins
      • 1895 Cuban rebels declare independence
        • José Martí, Cuban exile who tried to gain support while living in NYC (Bottom Left)
    • The “Yellow” Press Inflames Opinion
        • William Randolph Hearst, New York Journal (Left)
        • Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador
          • One of his letters published in New York Journal enrages the nation
          • Jingoism: Aggressive Nationalism
          • Joseph Pulitzer, The World
          • Competition to increase circulation of their newspapers
          • Yellow Journalism: exaggerated, sensationalist, often false stories made up to sell more papers
          • Led to many Americans supporting Cuba
the maine blows up
Maine explosion: 1898

266 dead,

Many blamed Spain

(USS Maine: Below, Hearst Article Blaming Spain: Top Right, and “Spanish Misrule” Cartoon)

The Maine Blows Up!
American Troops Battle the Spanish
    • The United States Takes the Philippines
      • George Dewey leads squadron into Manila Bay
      • Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino revolutionary leader starts a guerrilla war against Spain after being contacted by President McKinley
        • Thinks American troops are there to assist him
        • Leads to hostilities been Filipinos and Americans
    • American Forces Battle in Cuba
      • “Rough Riders” land in Cuba led by Leonard Wood and second in command Theodore Roosevelt
      • Kettle Hill, Rough Riders accompanied by all African American regiment of the 9th and 10th calvary (many of which were volunteers)
      • Spanish surrender and on August 12, 1898 Spain and the U.S. agree to a cease-fire
Effects of the War
      • Treaty of Paris
        • Cuba given freedom
        • U.S. takes control of Guam and Puerto Rico
        • U.S. trying to determine what to do with the Philippines
    • The Debate Over Annexation
      • Imperialists wanted to annex the Philippines
        • Teach the uncivilized people how to live properly (McKinley)
        • Free the oppressed
      • Anti-Imperialists
        • Andrew Carnegie
          • Imperialism costs would outweigh the economic gains
        • Jane Addams
          • Annexation would be against American principles
        • Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain-Left)
          • Annexation would be against American principles
        • Samuel Gompers
          • Worried about competition for jobs and drive down wages
u s history i2

U.S. History I

Chapter 9 Section 3

“The U.S. and East Asia”

3.1, 9.3, 9.4

Filipinos Rebel Against American Rule
    • Emilio Aguinaldo calls for troops to attack Americans: Insurrection: rebellion
    • Guerilla Warfare: non-traditional small arms combat: Aguinaldo captured 1901
    • *5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos die
    • General Arthur MacArthur (Douglas MacArthur’s father)
      • Sets up re-concentration camps to separate guerilla warriors from civilians
      • Thousands die from starvation and disease
reforms lead to promise of self rule eventually
Reforms lead to promise of “Self-rule”…eventually
  • William Howard Taft, 1st US civilian governor
    • tried to reform education, transportation and healthcare
    • Building railroads, bridges, telephone lines to strengthen the economy
    • Public schools
  • 1946 Philippines gain independence from the U.S.
the u s pursues interests in china
The U.S. Pursues Interests in China
  • Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power
      • President McKinley asked Teddy to run as his Vice President in 1900
    • The Election of 1900
      • McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan
      • “Four More Years of the Full Dinner Pail”
      • 9/6/1901 Leon Czogosz, shoots McKinley
      • Teddy (age 42) takes office
    • Roosevelt Becomes President
      • Believed the US had a duty to shape the less civilized corners of the world
      • Wanted the US to be a world power
America Declares Equal Trade in China
    • Exports to China increased 4x
  • The Open Door Policy: John Hay
    • “Sphere of Influence”: a section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers
    • Open Door Policy: a policy that allows each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence
  • The Boxer Rebellion
    • Chinese movement to rid themselves of foreign control
    • Group members attacked foreign embassies in Beijing
    • U.S. retains access to Chinese exports due to Secretary of State John Hay’s urging of foreign powers to accept compensation for damages rather than attack China and break it into colonies
Tensions Rise Between America and Japan

Negotiating peace between Japan and Russia, aided by outcome of Boxer Rebellion Russo-Japanese War

Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize 1906

Japan and US relations wither

Anti-Asian Protests in U.S. (Gentleman’s Agreement)

Great White Fleet voyage

Increased tensions rather than elevating them

U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
    • Foraker Act
      • Puerto Rico becomes an unincorporated territory
        • Puerto Ricans not US citizens
        • Puerto Ricans did not have constitutional rights
        • Congress could pass any laws they wanted in regards to Puerto Rico
      • Slowly gain “self governance”
      • 1917 Puerto Ricans become US citizens
      • 1947 hold elections for governor
    • Debate on statehood, commonwealth, or independence still a heated topic today
U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
    • McKinley makes promises
      • Eventual independence for Cuba
      • Own constitution
        • McKinley puts stipulations
    • Platt Amendment
      • Stipulations
        • Cuba cannot make treaties with other countries which would weaken its independence
        • Cuba must allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba
        • Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to stop possible foreign collectors from landing on the island
        • US had the right to intervene to protect Cuba’s independence and to keep order
      • Cubans rejected it at first, later change their minds
      • Repealed in 1934
roosevelt pursues big stick diplomacy
A Growing Presence in the Caribbean

“Speak softly and carry a big stick” Policy

The Panama Canal

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

Revolt in Panama

Rid of Columbian influence

Panama becomes independent

Signs treaty with US to build canal

Roosevelt Pursues “Big Stick” Diplomacy
The Roosevelt Corollary: To Monroe Doctrine
    • The U.S. should and would intervene in Latin American affairs when needed to maintain economic and political stability--------------------------------------
      • 1st applied in the Dominican Republic
      • Latin American countries resent involvement
    • Dollar Diplomacy: William Howard Taft
      • Taft’s policy, which follows T. Roosevelt’s
      • Substituted dollars for bullets
      • Nicaragua got both bullets and money
    • Moral diplomacy: Woodrow Wilson
      • U.S. Should promote human rights and opportunity
      • “…never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest”
      • Francisco “Poncho” Villa: Pursued by U.S. troops for an attack on Americans that left 18 dead (SEE Page 274)