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Curriculum Vitae Pramila Rani Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory Vanderbilt University About Me Education Vanderbilt University , Nashville, TN (June 2003-Present) PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dissertation Topic: Affect- based implicit human-robot interaction

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curriculum vitae pramila rani

Curriculum VitaePramila Rani

Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory Vanderbilt University

about me
About Me

Education

  • Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN(June 2003-Present)
    • PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
    • Dissertation Topic: Affect- based implicit human-robot interaction
  • Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN(August 2001-May 2003)
    • M.S. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
    • Major: Robotics and Control
  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India (August 1997-June 2001)
    • B.E. (Hons.) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Pramila Rani

experience
Experience
  • Research Assistant: At Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (Under Prof. Nilanjan Sarkar), Vanderbilt University (January 2002 - Present)
    • Implementing pattern recognition techniques (Fuzzy Logic, Regression Tress, Bayesian Networks, KNN classifier and Neural Networks).
    • Design and implementation of an affect-sensitive robot architecture.
    • Real-time acquisition and analysis of physiological signals using advanced signal acquisition and processing techniques
    • Design and development of a closed-loop feedback system for robot-based and computer-based games.
  • Teaching Assistant: At Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University for ME 234 System Dynamics (August 2001 - December 2001)
  • Intern : At Motorola India Electronics Limited, Bangalore, India (January-June 2001)

Pramila Rani

professional achievements
Professional Achievements
  • Selected for the 2004-2005 Chancellor's List published by the National Academic Affairs (Only 1% students from the 3000 National Colleges and Universities are selected each year)
  • My Research in News: Featured on Tech TV and various news magazines including BBC, ABC News, Science Daily and ACM Technews

(http://robotics.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/affect.htm#news)

  • Among the 35 students selected world-wide to attend the RAS/IFRR Summer School on "Human-Robot Interaction" held at Volterra, Italy in July, 2004
  • Professional memberships: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS), American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)

Pramila Rani

publications
Publications

Dissertation Related Publications:

  • Rani, P, Sims, J, Brackin, R, and N. Sarkar, “Online Stress Detection using Psychophysiological Signal for Implicit Human-Robot Cooperation,” inRobotica, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 673-686, 2002.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., and L. Kirby, “Anxiety Detecting Robotic Systems – Towards Implicit Human-Robot Collaboration,” in Robotica, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 85-95, 2004.
  • (Under Review) Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., A., Adams, J., A., “Affective Communication for Implicit Human-Machine Interaction”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics.
  • (Under Review) Rani, P., Sarkar, N., “An Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Using Affective Cues,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Operator Engagement Detection and Robot Behavior Adaptation in Human-Robot Interaction", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 2005, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., "Affect-Sensitive Human-Robot Cooperation –Theory and Experiments", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp: 2382-2387, Taiwan, September 2003.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Maintaining Optimal Challenge in Computer Games Through Real-Time Physiological Feedback ", HCI International, July 2005, Las Vegas, USA.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, “Anxiety Detection for Implicit Human-Robot Collaboration”, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Washington D.C., pp: 4896-4903, October 2003.
  • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Emotion-Sensitive Robots- A New Paradigm for Human-Robot Interaction", IEEE-RAS/RSJ International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2004), November 2004, Los Angeles, USA
  • Adams, J, Rani, P, Sarkar, N, “Mixed Initiative Interaction and Robotic Systems”, Workshop on Supervisory Control of Learning and Adaptive Systems, Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-04), San Jose, CA, July, 2004.
  • (Submitted) Liu, C, Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques for Affect Detection in Human Robot Interaction," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, August 2005, Canada.
  • (Submitted), Rani, P., Sarkar, N., “Making Robots Emotion-Sensitive - Preliminary Experiments and Results,”, ROMAN 2005

Pramila Rani

some definitions
Some Definitions
  • Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
    • The study of humans, robots and the ways in which they influence each other
  • Psychophysiology
    • Science of understanding the link between psychology and physiology
  • Affective Communication
    • Communication relating to, arising from, or influencing feelings or emotions

Pramila Rani

slide8
Goal

This goal is to develop an intuitive affect*-sensitive human-robot interaction framework

  • robot will interact with a human based on his/her probable affectivestate
  • affective state will be inferred from the human's physiological signals
  • robot will adapt its behavior in response to the human's affective state

*emotion

Pramila Rani

outline
Outline
  • Motivation
  • HRI Framework and Main Components
  • Signal Processing for Affect-Recognition
  • Simulink Design for Real-Time Affective feedback & Robot Control

Pramila Rani

motivation
Motivation
  • The Robot “Invasion”
    • There is a projected increase of 1,145% in the number of personal service robots in use within a year
    • According to World robotics 2004 report, at the end of 2003, about 610,000 autonomous vacuum cleaners and lawn-mowing robots were in operation
    • In 2004-2007, more than 4 million new units are forecasted to be added!!!
  • Need for Natural and Intuitive Human-Robot Communication
    • Unlike industrial robots, personal and professional service robots will need to communicate more naturally and spontaneously with people around
    • Robots will be expected to be understanding, emphatic and intelligent

Pramila Rani

motivation11
Motivation
  • Attempt to mimic Human-Human Interaction
    • More than 70% of communication is non-verbal or implicit
    • Emotions are a significant part of communication
    • 7% percent of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated verbally. About 38% by paralanguage and 55% via nonverbal channels [1]
  • Most Significant Channels of Implicit Communication in Humans
    • Facial Expressions
    • Vocal Intonation
    • Gestures and Postures
  • Physiology

[1] Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent Messages. Wadsworth, Belmont, California

Pramila Rani

motivation12
Motivation

Giving Robots Emotional Intelligence

  • Robots should be capable of implicit communication with humans
  • They should detect human emotions
  • They should modify their behavior to adapt to human emotions

Pramila Rani

application areas
Application Areas

Some Potential Application Areas of Affect-Sensitive Robots

Pramila Rani

human robot interaction framework
Human-Robot Interaction Framework

Extend Architecture Capabilities

Basic Framework

Extend Communication Capabilities

Pramila Rani

main components
Main Components
  • Theoretical
  • Computational
    • Signal conditioning and processing
    • Machine learning for affect recognition
  • System Development
    • Task design for training (Phase I) and validation (Phase II) phases
  • Experimental

Pramila Rani

system development
System Development

System Set-up for Interactive Pong Game

  • One player Pong – Player against Computer
  • Continuous Physiological Monitoring
  • Anxiety Detection from Physiology
  • Dynamic Game Adaptation based on
    • Anxiety
    • Performance

Pramila Rani

computational
Computational
  • Signal conditioning and processing
    • Algorithms for artifact-rejection, adaptive thresholding, signal conditioning and feature-extraction for various signals
    • Fourier transform, Wavelet transform, and statistical analysis and were extensively used in order to perform signal processing
  • Machine learning for affect recognition
    • Regression Tree Methodology was employed to build an affect-recognition system
    • A systematic comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of four machine learning methods - K-Nearest Neighbor, Regression Tree, Bayesian Network and Support Vector Machine* was performed

* SVM analysis was done by Mr. Changchun Liu

Pramila Rani

real time affect recognition
Real-Time Affect Recognition

Serial Communication

C2

Biomedical Signal Processing

C1

Affect-Recognition via Regression Tree

ECG

PPG

ICG

Physiological Features

Affective Trigger Generation

Real-Time Signal Acquisition

C ++ Library

SC

Medical Acquisition Device

EMG

Performance Measure

PCG

Pramila Rani

signal processing
Signal Processing

R Waves

Peak Amp

Signals

PPG

PPG

(Photoplethysmogram)

ECG

ECG

(Electrocardiogram)

PTT

IBI

Peak Amplitude

IBI (Interbeat Interval)

Mean

Variability

Pulse Transit Time

Mean

Variability

Sympathetic Power

Parasympathetic Power

Pramila Rani

ecg and ppg signals
ECG and PPG Signals

Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Signals

Inputs

Outputs

ECG

  • Mean Pulse Transit Time
  • Var. Pulse Transit Time
  • Mean Interbeat Interval
  • Var. Interbeat Interval
  • Peak Time Array
  • Mean Peak Amplitude
  • Max Peak Amplitude
  • Sympathetic Activity
  • Parasympathetic activity

ECG Waveform

PPG

PPG Waveform

Pramila Rani

electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram

Output

Input

  • Mean Interbeat Interval
  • Var. Interbeat Interval
  • Peak Time Array
  • Mean Peak Amplitude
  • Max Peak Amplitude
  • Sympathetic Activity
  • Parasympathetic activity

ECG Waveform

  • Denoising
  • Filtering
  • Adaptive Thresholding
  • Peak Detection
  • Peak Interpolation
  • Artifact Rejection
  • Spectral Analysis

Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signal

Pramila Rani

photoplethysmogram
Photoplethysmogram

Output

  • Mean Interbeat Interval
  • Var. Interbeat Interval
  • Peak Time Array
  • Mean Peak Amplitude
  • Max Peak Amplitude
  • Var. Peak Amplitude
  • Denoising
  • Filtering
  • Adaptive Thresholding
  • Peak Detection
  • Peak Interpolation
  • Artifact Rejection

Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Signal

Input

PPG Waveform

Pramila Rani

other biomedical signals
Other Biomedical Signals

Physiological Signals

Feature Vectors

EMG Waveform

EMG

  • Mean EMG activity
  • Var. EMG activity
  • Slope EMG activity
  • Mean Frequency
  • Median Frequency

Impedance Waveform

ICG

  • Mean IBI
  • Var. IBI
  • Mean PEP
  • Var. PEP

GSR

  • Mean Tonic
  • Slope Tonic
  • Mean Amp Phasic
  • Max Amp Phasic
  • Rate Phasic

Galvanic Skin Response

  • Tools
  • Wavelet Trans .
  • Fourier Trans.
  • Statistical SP
  • Challenges
  • High Speed
  • High Accuracy
  • Handle Artifacts

Pramila Rani

system development24
System Development

System Set-up for Robot Basketball Game

  • Basketball hoop on 5 DOF robotic arm
  • Robot can vary game difficulty
  • Continuous Physiological Monitoring
  • Anxiety Detection from Physiology
  • Dynamic Game Adaptation based on
    • Anxiety
    • Performance

Pramila Rani

robot control
Robot-Control

C2

Robot Controller

Inverse Kinematics

Affective Triggers

Config. Selection

Trajectory Generation

PD Controller

MultiQ Data Acquisition Card

Serial Communication

C1 Running Matlab for Signal Acquisition

Medical Acquisition Device

Data Acquisition Functionality from MultiQ Board in Simulink provided By Quanser

Configurations Data Base

Pramila Rani

simulink implementation of c2
Simulink Implementation of C2

Serial Acquisition of Affective Triggers

Pramila Rani

slide27

Serial Acquisition of Affective Triggers

The S-Function Block is responsible for processing the Affective Triggers and sending the appropriate handshake signals to the computer being serially communicated with

Simulink Blocks for Serial Communication Provided by Quanser

Pramila Rani

simulink implementation of c228
Simulink Implementation of C2

Trajectory Generation and Robot Control

Pramila Rani

slide29

Trajectory Generation and Robot Control

Robot X-Motion

Pramila Rani

slide30

Robot X-Motion

Trajectory Selection

Trajectory Selection

Pramila Rani

slide31

Trajectory and Speed Selection

Speed Selection

Trajectory Selection

Pramila Rani

slide32

Trajectory Generation and Robot Control

Robot Joint Control

Pramila Rani

slide33

Robot Joints Control

PD Controller

Simulink Blocks for Data Acquisition Provided by Quanser

Pramila Rani

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Feasibility of real-time physiology-based affect-recognition demonstrated
  • Affect-detection capability integrated in a robot-control architecture to allow implicit communication
  • Robot behavior dynamically adapted as a function of perceived affective stets
  • Computer-based and robot-based experiments designed to investigate impact of affective communication in human-machine interactions

Pramila Rani

hri and mathworks
HRI and MathWorks
  • Human-Robot Interaction is an emerging focus area requiring synergistic integration of Robotics, Control Systems, AI, and Psychology.
  • Matlab & Simulink provide an ideal platform for combining the above domains’ knowledge and for rapid prototyping of intelligent HRI frameworks
  • Potential for New Matlab Toolboxes:
    • Biomedical Signal Processing
    • Robotics (Forward/Inverse Kinematics, Controller Design etc.)
  • Ultimate goal:Achieve seamless integration of diverse science and engineering domains and MathWorks well-place to achieve this
  • It is an exciting time for MathWorks and I would love to be a part of it!!

Pramila Rani

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Advisor: Dr. Nilanjan Sarkar,

Mech. Engg., Vanderbilt UniversityTeam Members: Dr. Eric Vanman,

Psychology, Georgia State University

Mr. Changchun Liu,

Graduate Student, Vanderbilt University

Pramila Rani

questions
Questions?

?

Pramila Rani