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Curriculum Vitae Pramila Rani

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  1. Curriculum VitaePramila Rani Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory Vanderbilt University

  2. About Me Education • Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN(June 2003-Present) • PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science • Dissertation Topic: Affect- based implicit human-robot interaction • Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN(August 2001-May 2003) • M.S. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science • Major: Robotics and Control • Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India (August 1997-June 2001) • B.E. (Hons.) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering Pramila Rani

  3. Experience • Research Assistant: At Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (Under Prof. Nilanjan Sarkar), Vanderbilt University (January 2002 - Present) • Implementing pattern recognition techniques (Fuzzy Logic, Regression Tress, Bayesian Networks, KNN classifier and Neural Networks). • Design and implementation of an affect-sensitive robot architecture. • Real-time acquisition and analysis of physiological signals using advanced signal acquisition and processing techniques • Design and development of a closed-loop feedback system for robot-based and computer-based games. • Teaching Assistant: At Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University for ME 234 System Dynamics (August 2001 - December 2001) • Intern : At Motorola India Electronics Limited, Bangalore, India (January-June 2001) Pramila Rani

  4. Professional Achievements • Selected for the 2004-2005 Chancellor's List published by the National Academic Affairs (Only 1% students from the 3000 National Colleges and Universities are selected each year) • My Research in News: Featured on Tech TV and various news magazines including BBC, ABC News, Science Daily and ACM Technews (http://robotics.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/affect.htm#news) • Among the 35 students selected world-wide to attend the RAS/IFRR Summer School on "Human-Robot Interaction" held at Volterra, Italy in July, 2004 • Professional memberships: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS), American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Pramila Rani

  5. Publications Dissertation Related Publications: • Rani, P, Sims, J, Brackin, R, and N. Sarkar, “Online Stress Detection using Psychophysiological Signal for Implicit Human-Robot Cooperation,” inRobotica, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 673-686, 2002. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., and L. Kirby, “Anxiety Detecting Robotic Systems – Towards Implicit Human-Robot Collaboration,” in Robotica, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 85-95, 2004. • (Under Review) Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., A., Adams, J., A., “Affective Communication for Implicit Human-Machine Interaction”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. • (Under Review) Rani, P., Sarkar, N., “An Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Using Affective Cues,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Operator Engagement Detection and Robot Behavior Adaptation in Human-Robot Interaction", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 2005, Barcelona, Spain. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C., "Affect-Sensitive Human-Robot Cooperation –Theory and Experiments", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp: 2382-2387, Taiwan, September 2003. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Maintaining Optimal Challenge in Computer Games Through Real-Time Physiological Feedback ", HCI International, July 2005, Las Vegas, USA. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, “Anxiety Detection for Implicit Human-Robot Collaboration”, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Washington D.C., pp: 4896-4903, October 2003. • Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Emotion-Sensitive Robots- A New Paradigm for Human-Robot Interaction", IEEE-RAS/RSJ International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2004), November 2004, Los Angeles, USA • Adams, J, Rani, P, Sarkar, N, “Mixed Initiative Interaction and Robotic Systems”, Workshop on Supervisory Control of Learning and Adaptive Systems, Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-04), San Jose, CA, July, 2004. • (Submitted) Liu, C, Rani, P., Sarkar, N., "Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques for Affect Detection in Human Robot Interaction," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, August 2005, Canada. • (Submitted), Rani, P., Sarkar, N., “Making Robots Emotion-Sensitive - Preliminary Experiments and Results,”, ROMAN 2005 Pramila Rani

  6. Psychophysiology-Based Affective Communication for Implicit Human-Robot Interaction Pramila Rani

  7. Some Definitions • Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) • The study of humans, robots and the ways in which they influence each other • Psychophysiology • Science of understanding the link between psychology and physiology • Affective Communication • Communication relating to, arising from, or influencing feelings or emotions Pramila Rani

  8. Goal This goal is to develop an intuitive affect*-sensitive human-robot interaction framework • robot will interact with a human based on his/her probable affectivestate • affective state will be inferred from the human's physiological signals • robot will adapt its behavior in response to the human's affective state *emotion Pramila Rani

  9. Outline • Motivation • HRI Framework and Main Components • Signal Processing for Affect-Recognition • Simulink Design for Real-Time Affective feedback & Robot Control Pramila Rani

  10. Motivation • The Robot “Invasion” • There is a projected increase of 1,145% in the number of personal service robots in use within a year • According to World robotics 2004 report, at the end of 2003, about 610,000 autonomous vacuum cleaners and lawn-mowing robots were in operation • In 2004-2007, more than 4 million new units are forecasted to be added!!! • Need for Natural and Intuitive Human-Robot Communication • Unlike industrial robots, personal and professional service robots will need to communicate more naturally and spontaneously with people around • Robots will be expected to be understanding, emphatic and intelligent Pramila Rani

  11. Motivation • Attempt to mimic Human-Human Interaction • More than 70% of communication is non-verbal or implicit • Emotions are a significant part of communication • 7% percent of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated verbally. About 38% by paralanguage and 55% via nonverbal channels [1] • Most Significant Channels of Implicit Communication in Humans • Facial Expressions • Vocal Intonation • Gestures and Postures • Physiology [1] Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent Messages. Wadsworth, Belmont, California Pramila Rani

  12. Motivation Giving Robots Emotional Intelligence • Robots should be capable of implicit communication with humans • They should detect human emotions • They should modify their behavior to adapt to human emotions Pramila Rani

  13. Application Areas Some Potential Application Areas of Affect-Sensitive Robots Pramila Rani

  14. Human-Robot Interaction Framework Extend Architecture Capabilities Basic Framework Extend Communication Capabilities Pramila Rani

  15. Main Components • Theoretical • Computational • Signal conditioning and processing • Machine learning for affect recognition • System Development • Task design for training (Phase I) and validation (Phase II) phases • Experimental Pramila Rani

  16. System Development System Set-up for Interactive Pong Game • One player Pong – Player against Computer • Continuous Physiological Monitoring • Anxiety Detection from Physiology • Dynamic Game Adaptation based on • Anxiety • Performance Pramila Rani

  17. Computational • Signal conditioning and processing • Algorithms for artifact-rejection, adaptive thresholding, signal conditioning and feature-extraction for various signals • Fourier transform, Wavelet transform, and statistical analysis and were extensively used in order to perform signal processing • Machine learning for affect recognition • Regression Tree Methodology was employed to build an affect-recognition system • A systematic comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of four machine learning methods - K-Nearest Neighbor, Regression Tree, Bayesian Network and Support Vector Machine* was performed * SVM analysis was done by Mr. Changchun Liu Pramila Rani

  18. Real-Time Affect Recognition Serial Communication C2 Biomedical Signal Processing C1 Affect-Recognition via Regression Tree ECG PPG ICG Physiological Features Affective Trigger Generation Real-Time Signal Acquisition C ++ Library SC Medical Acquisition Device EMG Performance Measure PCG Pramila Rani

  19. Signal Processing R Waves Peak Amp Signals PPG PPG (Photoplethysmogram) ECG ECG (Electrocardiogram) PTT IBI Peak Amplitude IBI (Interbeat Interval) Mean Variability Pulse Transit Time Mean Variability Sympathetic Power Parasympathetic Power Pramila Rani

  20. ECG and PPG Signals Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Signals Inputs Outputs ECG • Mean Pulse Transit Time • Var. Pulse Transit Time • Mean Interbeat Interval • Var. Interbeat Interval • Peak Time Array • Mean Peak Amplitude • Max Peak Amplitude • Sympathetic Activity • Parasympathetic activity ECG Waveform PPG PPG Waveform Pramila Rani

  21. Electrocardiogram Output Input • Mean Interbeat Interval • Var. Interbeat Interval • Peak Time Array • Mean Peak Amplitude • Max Peak Amplitude • Sympathetic Activity • Parasympathetic activity ECG Waveform • Denoising • Filtering • Adaptive Thresholding • Peak Detection • Peak Interpolation • Artifact Rejection • Spectral Analysis Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signal Pramila Rani

  22. Photoplethysmogram Output • Mean Interbeat Interval • Var. Interbeat Interval • Peak Time Array • Mean Peak Amplitude • Max Peak Amplitude • Var. Peak Amplitude • Denoising • Filtering • Adaptive Thresholding • Peak Detection • Peak Interpolation • Artifact Rejection Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Signal Input PPG Waveform Pramila Rani

  23. Other Biomedical Signals Physiological Signals Feature Vectors EMG Waveform EMG • Mean EMG activity • Var. EMG activity • Slope EMG activity • Mean Frequency • Median Frequency Impedance Waveform ICG • Mean IBI • Var. IBI • Mean PEP • Var. PEP GSR • Mean Tonic • Slope Tonic • Mean Amp Phasic • Max Amp Phasic • Rate Phasic Galvanic Skin Response • Tools • Wavelet Trans . • Fourier Trans. • Statistical SP • Challenges • High Speed • High Accuracy • Handle Artifacts Pramila Rani

  24. System Development System Set-up for Robot Basketball Game • Basketball hoop on 5 DOF robotic arm • Robot can vary game difficulty • Continuous Physiological Monitoring • Anxiety Detection from Physiology • Dynamic Game Adaptation based on • Anxiety • Performance Pramila Rani

  25. Robot-Control C2 Robot Controller Inverse Kinematics Affective Triggers Config. Selection Trajectory Generation PD Controller MultiQ Data Acquisition Card Serial Communication C1 Running Matlab for Signal Acquisition Medical Acquisition Device Data Acquisition Functionality from MultiQ Board in Simulink provided By Quanser Configurations Data Base Pramila Rani

  26. Simulink Implementation of C2 Serial Acquisition of Affective Triggers Pramila Rani

  27. Serial Acquisition of Affective Triggers The S-Function Block is responsible for processing the Affective Triggers and sending the appropriate handshake signals to the computer being serially communicated with Simulink Blocks for Serial Communication Provided by Quanser Pramila Rani

  28. Simulink Implementation of C2 Trajectory Generation and Robot Control Pramila Rani

  29. Trajectory Generation and Robot Control Robot X-Motion Pramila Rani

  30. Robot X-Motion Trajectory Selection Trajectory Selection Pramila Rani

  31. Trajectory and Speed Selection Speed Selection Trajectory Selection Pramila Rani

  32. Trajectory Generation and Robot Control Robot Joint Control Pramila Rani

  33. Robot Joints Control PD Controller Simulink Blocks for Data Acquisition Provided by Quanser Pramila Rani

  34. Conclusion • Feasibility of real-time physiology-based affect-recognition demonstrated • Affect-detection capability integrated in a robot-control architecture to allow implicit communication • Robot behavior dynamically adapted as a function of perceived affective stets • Computer-based and robot-based experiments designed to investigate impact of affective communication in human-machine interactions Pramila Rani

  35. HRI and MathWorks • Human-Robot Interaction is an emerging focus area requiring synergistic integration of Robotics, Control Systems, AI, and Psychology. • Matlab & Simulink provide an ideal platform for combining the above domains’ knowledge and for rapid prototyping of intelligent HRI frameworks • Potential for New Matlab Toolboxes: • Biomedical Signal Processing • Robotics (Forward/Inverse Kinematics, Controller Design etc.) • Ultimate goal:Achieve seamless integration of diverse science and engineering domains and MathWorks well-place to achieve this • It is an exciting time for MathWorks and I would love to be a part of it!! Pramila Rani

  36. Acknowledgements Advisor: Dr. Nilanjan Sarkar, Mech. Engg., Vanderbilt UniversityTeam Members: Dr. Eric Vanman, Psychology, Georgia State University Mr. Changchun Liu, Graduate Student, Vanderbilt University Pramila Rani

  37. Questions? ? Pramila Rani