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Teaching writing: Issues from a British perspective. Clare Furneaux The University of Reading, UK Oficinas de Escrita no Ensino de Línguas, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal 29 October 2004. Why teach writing?.

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teaching writing issues from a british perspective

Teaching writing: Issues from a British perspective

Clare Furneaux

The University of Reading, UK

Oficinas de Escrita no Ensino de Línguas, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal 29 October 2004

why teach writing
Why teach writing?

1.   to use writing for teaching English? (the language: its grammar and vocabulary)?

2.   to teach English for writing? (vs English for speaking – registers and appropriacy)?

3.   to teach Englishwriting? (vs writing in the learners’ mother tongue – cross-cultural issues)?

4. to teach composing (i.e. how to write)?

a history of fl writing teaching
A history of FL writing teaching

A focus on product:

  • Grammar translation method: accuracy
  • Controlled-to-free: habit formation
  • Paragraph pattern approach: organisation
  • Grammar – Syntax- Organisation: organisation + grammar
  • Communicative approach: purpose + audience
focus on process
Focus on process
  • purpose + audience + the writer’s process.
  • A process model (White & Arndt 1991):

drafting

structuring re-viewing focusing

generating ideas evaluating

focus on the reader
Focus on the reader
  • English for Academic Purposes: content & audience
  • The genre approach: rhetorical structure
teaching mother tongue english
Teaching mother tongue English

The National Curriculum (revised 2000)

Attempting to standardise education and to address…

popular concerns
Popular concerns

Literacy skills of school leavers:

  • Accuracy (inflnc of txtng? too much emphasis on communication alone?)
  • Style (e-mail/chat appearing in other writing contexts)
  • Poor readers of print (prevalence of hypertext in on-screen reading?)
primary school
Primary School

The National Literacy Framework: word, sentence, text strands for each year group

The daily Literacy Hour:

  • 15 mins whole class shared text work
  • 15 mins whole class focused word work
  • 20 mins group & independent work
  • 10 mins whole class review/reflection
secondary school
Secondary School

Framework for teaching English

Literacy across the Curriculum

Word, sentence, text levels defined by year Text level – writing: Year 7 (age 11):

  • Plan, draft and present
  • Write to imagine, explore, entertain
  • Write to inform, explain, describe
  • Write to persuade, argue, advise
  • Write to analyse, review, comment
english as a foreign second additional language
English as a foreign/second/additional language

Contexts:

  • Language schools
  • Schools
  • Colleges
  • Universities
what writers need to know
What writers need to know
  • content knowledge: of subject area concepts
  • context knowledge: of the social context in which the text will be read, including the reader’s expectations...
  • language system knowledge
  • writing process knowledge

Tribble 1996

university level issues
University-level issues
  • Native speakers need help with academic writing & study skills too.
  • Critical thinking skills need to be taught.
  • Plagiarism – from books, articles, websites, other students. Intended and unintended
writing teachers need to remember
Writing teachers need to remember

Students need help:

  • with language
  • with composing
  • to see writing as discourse with a reader
  • to read texts as apprentice writers
  • to become evaluators of their own writing
  • to become independent writers.
websites
Websites
  • Department for Education and Skills (DFES) 1997-2004 National Literacy Strategy (online) Available from: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/literacy
  • Department for Education and Skills (DFES) The National Languages Strategy http://www.dfes.gov.uk/languages/DSP_nationallanguages_activity.cfm
  • National Association for the Teaching of English http://www.nate.org.uk/
  • National Centre for Languages http://www.cilt.org.uk/
references
References

Tribble, C. 1996 Writing. Oxford: OUP.

White, R. & Arndt, V. 1991. Process Writing London: Longman