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Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program. Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems. Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC). Announced April 22, 2004

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Society of automotive engineers improved mobile air conditioning cooperative research program l.jpg

Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program

Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems


Slide2 l.jpg

Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC)

  • Announced April 22, 2004

  • A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research program to responsibly manage all aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner environmental performance

    • Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant

    • Add to customer value

    • Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal

  • Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, MAC service providers and the Environmental Protection Agency

IMAC CRP


Current 27 corporate sponsors l.jpg

Arkema (Autofina)

Audi

Behr

BMW

DaimlerChrysler

Delphi

Denso

DuPont

Ford

Fujikoki

General Motors

Goodyear

Honeywell

Ineous Fluor

Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc

Manuli

Modine

Nissan

Parker Hannifin

Sanden

Schrader-Bridgeport

Solvay

TI Automotive

Toyota

Trelleborg

Viking Plastics

Visteon

Current 27 Corporate Sponsors

IMAC CRP


Project goals l.jpg
Project Goals

Team 4

Containment During

Service & Disposal

Team 1

50% Leakage

Reduction

IMAC Core

Team 2

30% Efficiency

Improvement

Demonstration Vehicles

2005/2006

Team 3

30% Load

Reduction

IMAC CRP


Imac program objectives l.jpg

Reduce “direct” HFC-134a refrigerant emissions that leak from MACs

Reduce “indirect emissions”, which are emissions related to the burning of fuel needed to power the air conditioner

Reduce any other emissions during the manufacture, installation, operation, servicing and disposal of the system

Provide a directly comparative engineering evaluation

Existing and improved technologies

Vehicle and system design

Servicing of systems

IMAC Program Objectives

IMAC CRP


Project organization l.jpg

Project Organization

  • Overall Project Management

  • Financial Oversight

  • Funding strategy

  • Educate management

Tier One

Tier Two

OEM

Industry

CORE

GROUP

SAE

Leakage

Efficiency

Vehicle Load

Service

  • Members:

  • Tier 1 suppliers

  • Tier 2 suppliers

  • OEM’s

  • MACS and Members

  • EPA

  • Refrigerant Suppliers

  • Other

  • Members:

  • OEM’s

  • Tier 1 suppliers

  • NREL

  • EPA

  • University’s

  • Other

  • Members:

  • OEM’s

  • Tier 1 suppliers

  • NREL

  • University’s

  • Other

  • Members:

  • OEM’s

  • Tier 1 suppliers

  • EPA

  • MACS and members

  • Other

  • OEM Advisors

    • GM

    • Ford

    • D-C

To advise in case of proprietary technologies

IMAC CRP


Imac project teams l.jpg

Team1 from MACs

Team2

Team3

Team4

Team Name:

Refrigerant Leakage Reduction

AC System Efficiency Improvement

Vehicle ThermalLoad Reduction

Service refrigerant loss Reduction

Number of Team Members:

24

16

8

25

OEM’s:

5

4

3

2

Tier1’s:

13

8

1

7

Others:

6

4

3

16

Goals:

Reduction in Leakage

Improved Efficiency

Load Reduction Improved comfort

Reduction in refrigerant losses at service

IMAC Project Teams

IMAC CRP


Team 1 refrigerant leakage reduction l.jpg

Goal: from MACs

Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System refrigerant direct emissions by 50%

Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction

IMAC CRP


Team 1 progress to date l.jpg

Identified 4 current production vehicles to baseline for refrigerant leakage rate

Dodge Caravan (dual system)

Ford F150

Toyota Camry

GM W Car

Team 1 Progress to Date

IMAC CRP


Team 1 progress to date10 l.jpg

Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish refrigerant system direct emissions

Evaluating assembly plant “noise factors” regarding assembly of system components free of contamination, damage, etc.

Team 1 Progress to Date

IMAC CRP


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Develop direct emissionsSAE Standard for component and system mini-shed test

· Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to determine actual vehicle charge level

Evaluate new low emissions technologies per standard

Team 1 2006 Plan

IMAC CRP


Team 1 description of technologies l.jpg

Improved crimps direct emissions

Improved fittings

Compressor shaft seal and body seals

Hose permeation

Material integrity-tubing

Reduced number of joints

TXV

Transducer/switches

Service valves/caps

Manufacturing/Assembly specifications

Leakage Test Procedure

Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures

Team 1 Description of Technologies

IMAC CRP


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Goal: direct emissions

Improve system COP by 30% over the enhanced R134a system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1 Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research Program (ARCRP)

Demonstrate equivalent performance

Team 2System Efficiency

IMAC CRP


Team 2 deliverables l.jpg

Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test Stand direct emissions

Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel

SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP using the System Test Stand Approach

SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation of System Power Loss

Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis:

Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale

Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced R134a ARCRP system

Team 2 Deliverables

IMAC CRP


Team 2 2005 plans l.jpg

System Stand: direct emissions

Improved sub-cooling control (condenser)

Improved superheat control (evaporator)

Improved compressor efficiency

Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers

Vehicle:

Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development

A/C performance demonstration

Team 2 2005 Plans

IMAC CRP


Team 2 2006 plans l.jpg

System Stand: direct emissions

Next generation condensers (pending availability)

Next generation evaporators (pending availability)

Alternative compressor designs (pending availability)

“Best of the Best” combination

Vehicle:

Continue system development

A/C performance demonstration

Develop J Standards

Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix

Team 2 2006 Plans

IMAC CRP


Team 2 progress to date l.jpg
Team 2 direct emissionsProgress to Date

  • Condenser sub-cooling control study shows potential for 20-30% improved COP at low loads (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open issue)

  • Evaporator superheat control study shows potential for 20% improved COP at low loads

  • Improved efficiency compressor study shows potential for 15% improved COP (climate weighted)

  • Achieving the 30% improvement goal is promising but the individual effects may not be additive

IMAC CRP


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Goal: direct emissions

Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that reduce the cooling load by 30%

Team 3Vehicle Load Reduction

IMAC CRP


Team 3 progress to date l.jpg

Tested the impact of various technologies on soak temperatures

Power ventilation device

Solar reflective glazing

Lightweight insulation

Sunscreen for windshield

Plan to test additional technologies

Lightweight seats

Solar reflective paints

Developing a computer model at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a technology’s impact on time to comfort and power consumption

Team 3 Progress to Date

IMAC CRP


Nrel vehicle model l.jpg

T temperaturesamb

Qsolar

Wcomp

Tair

Tmass

Cond

Condenser

Qevap

Expansion Device

(Orifice Tube)

Electric-Driven

Compressor

MOTOR

Alternator

Generator

Front-End

Air Flow

Accumulator /

Dryer

Evaporator

Evaporator Air Flow

(Outside Air or Recirc.)

NREL vehicle Model

CAD

Solar

Radiation

Glazing

Cabin

Thermal/Fluid

Air

Conditioning

Thermal

Comfort

Vehicle

Fuel

Economy &

Emissions

Cooling Capacity

&

A/C Power

Occupant

Thermal

Comfort

IMAC CRP


Team 3 deliverables l.jpg

Procedure for evaluation of technology temperatures

Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits for various technologies

Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and field

· Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting

· Communication and education materials

Team 3 Deliverables

IMAC CRP


Team 4 reduction in refrigerant loss during servicing l.jpg

Goals: temperatures

Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and Service Procedures

Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of Life

Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way Refrigerant Containers

Produce Educational Materials and Conduct Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions

Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During Servicing

IMAC CRP


Team four service progress plans l.jpg
Team Four – Service temperaturesProgress & Plans

  • Leak detection tools, procedures

    • Writing standards for next generation of tools

    • Detection at 4 grams per joint/year

      (Current standard 14 grams)

    • Probe distance 3/8” (now ¼”)

    • ‘Real world’ testing for standard

IMAC CRP


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Team Four – Service temperaturesProgress & Plans

  • Service equipment, procedures

    • Testing has shown that current recovery equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system

    • Developing standard for next generation of equipment

    • Different recovery procedures needed for different types of systems

IMAC CRP


Team four service progress plans25 l.jpg
Team Four – Service temperaturesProgress & Plans

3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies

  • Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled assemblies for leakage

  • Develop a cost-effective means of field evaluation of assemblies

IMAC CRP


Team four service progress plans26 l.jpg
Team Four – Service temperaturesProgress & Plans

  • Analytical tool to evaluate

    service procedures

    • SAE Service Technology Group Activity

      • Focus on leak detection; diagnosis

5. Refrigerant mass balance

  • Data collection to identify and quantify the sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions

IMAC CRP


Team four service progress plans27 l.jpg
Team Four – Service temperaturesProgress & Plans

6. Vehicle end of life

  • Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association

  • Raise awareness in this sector

  • Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL refrigerant recovery

IMAC CRP


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Original 2004 announcement: “over $3 million in cash and in-kind contributions”

Program on track to surpass initial funding plan

Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans

IMAC CRP


Status after one year l.jpg
Status After One Year in-kind contributions”

  • All 4 teams are operational and making progress

  • Industry participation is high

  • The program is on track to meet scope, funding and technical targets

IMAC CRP