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Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program. Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems. Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC). Announced April 22, 2004

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Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program

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    1. Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

    2. Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC) • Announced April 22, 2004 • A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research program to responsibly manage all aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner environmental performance • Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant • Add to customer value • Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal • Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, MAC service providers and the Environmental Protection Agency IMAC CRP

    3. Arkema (Autofina) Audi Behr BMW DaimlerChrysler Delphi Denso DuPont Ford Fujikoki General Motors Goodyear Honeywell Ineous Fluor Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc Manuli Modine Nissan Parker Hannifin Sanden Schrader-Bridgeport Solvay TI Automotive Toyota Trelleborg Viking Plastics Visteon Current 27 Corporate Sponsors IMAC CRP

    4. Project Goals Team 4 Containment During Service & Disposal Team 1 50% Leakage Reduction IMAC Core Team 2 30% Efficiency Improvement Demonstration Vehicles 2005/2006 Team 3 30% Load Reduction IMAC CRP

    5. Reduce “direct” HFC-134a refrigerant emissions that leak from MACs Reduce “indirect emissions”, which are emissions related to the burning of fuel needed to power the air conditioner Reduce any other emissions during the manufacture, installation, operation, servicing and disposal of the system Provide a directly comparative engineering evaluation Existing and improved technologies Vehicle and system design Servicing of systems IMAC Program Objectives IMAC CRP

    6. Overall Technical Leadership • LCA & Cost Benefit Analysis • Sub-group Coordination Project Organization • Overall Project Management • Financial Oversight • Funding strategy • Educate management Tier One Tier Two OEM Industry CORE GROUP SAE Leakage Efficiency Vehicle Load Service • Members: • Tier 1 suppliers • Tier 2 suppliers • OEM’s • MACS and Members • EPA • Refrigerant Suppliers • Other • Members: • OEM’s • Tier 1 suppliers • NREL • EPA • University’s • Other • Members: • OEM’s • Tier 1 suppliers • NREL • University’s • Other • Members: • OEM’s • Tier 1 suppliers • EPA • MACS and members • Other • OEM Advisors • GM • Ford • D-C To advise in case of proprietary technologies IMAC CRP

    7. Team1 Team2 Team3 Team4 Team Name: Refrigerant Leakage Reduction AC System Efficiency Improvement Vehicle ThermalLoad Reduction Service refrigerant loss Reduction Number of Team Members: 24 16 8 25 OEM’s: 5 4 3 2 Tier1’s: 13 8 1 7 Others: 6 4 3 16 Goals: Reduction in Leakage Improved Efficiency Load Reduction Improved comfort Reduction in refrigerant losses at service IMAC Project Teams IMAC CRP

    8. Goal: Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System refrigerant direct emissions by 50% Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction IMAC CRP

    9. Identified 4 current production vehicles to baseline for refrigerant leakage rate Dodge Caravan (dual system) Ford F150 Toyota Camry GM W Car Team 1 Progress to Date IMAC CRP

    10. Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish refrigerant system direct emissions Evaluating assembly plant “noise factors” regarding assembly of system components free of contamination, damage, etc. Team 1 Progress to Date IMAC CRP

    11. DevelopSAE Standard for component and system mini-shed test · Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to determine actual vehicle charge level Evaluate new low emissions technologies per standard Team 1 2006 Plan IMAC CRP

    12. Improved crimps Improved fittings Compressor shaft seal and body seals Hose permeation Material integrity-tubing Reduced number of joints TXV Transducer/switches Service valves/caps Manufacturing/Assembly specifications Leakage Test Procedure Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures Team 1 Description of Technologies IMAC CRP

    13. Goal: Improve system COP by 30% over the enhanced R134a system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1 Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research Program (ARCRP) Demonstrate equivalent performance Team 2System Efficiency IMAC CRP

    14. Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test Stand Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP using the System Test Stand Approach SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation of System Power Loss Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis: Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced R134a ARCRP system Team 2 Deliverables IMAC CRP

    15. System Stand: Improved sub-cooling control (condenser) Improved superheat control (evaporator) Improved compressor efficiency Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers Vehicle: Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development A/C performance demonstration Team 2 2005 Plans IMAC CRP

    16. System Stand: Next generation condensers (pending availability) Next generation evaporators (pending availability) Alternative compressor designs (pending availability) “Best of the Best” combination Vehicle: Continue system development A/C performance demonstration Develop J Standards Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix Team 2 2006 Plans IMAC CRP

    17. Team 2Progress to Date • Condenser sub-cooling control study shows potential for 20-30% improved COP at low loads (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open issue) • Evaporator superheat control study shows potential for 20% improved COP at low loads • Improved efficiency compressor study shows potential for 15% improved COP (climate weighted) • Achieving the 30% improvement goal is promising but the individual effects may not be additive IMAC CRP

    18. Goal: Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that reduce the cooling load by 30% Team 3Vehicle Load Reduction IMAC CRP

    19. Tested the impact of various technologies on soak temperatures Power ventilation device Solar reflective glazing Lightweight insulation Sunscreen for windshield Plan to test additional technologies Lightweight seats Solar reflective paints Developing a computer model at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a technology’s impact on time to comfort and power consumption Team 3 Progress to Date IMAC CRP

    20. Tamb Qsolar Wcomp Tair Tmass Cond Condenser Qevap Expansion Device (Orifice Tube) Electric-Driven Compressor MOTOR Alternator Generator Front-End Air Flow Accumulator / Dryer Evaporator Evaporator Air Flow (Outside Air or Recirc.) NREL vehicle Model CAD Solar Radiation Glazing Cabin Thermal/Fluid Air Conditioning Thermal Comfort Vehicle Fuel Economy & Emissions Cooling Capacity & A/C Power Occupant Thermal Comfort IMAC CRP

    21. Procedure for evaluation of technology Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits for various technologies Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and field · Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting · Communication and education materials Team 3 Deliverables IMAC CRP

    22. Goals: Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and Service Procedures Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of Life Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way Refrigerant Containers Produce Educational Materials and Conduct Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During Servicing IMAC CRP

    23. Team Four – ServiceProgress & Plans • Leak detection tools, procedures • Writing standards for next generation of tools • Detection at 4 grams per joint/year (Current standard 14 grams) • Probe distance 3/8” (now ¼”) • ‘Real world’ testing for standard IMAC CRP

    24. Team Four – ServiceProgress & Plans • Service equipment, procedures • Testing has shown that current recovery equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system • Developing standard for next generation of equipment • Different recovery procedures needed for different types of systems IMAC CRP

    25. Team Four – ServiceProgress & Plans 3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies • Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled assemblies for leakage • Develop a cost-effective means of field evaluation of assemblies IMAC CRP

    26. Team Four – ServiceProgress & Plans • Analytical tool to evaluate service procedures • SAE Service Technology Group Activity • Focus on leak detection; diagnosis 5. Refrigerant mass balance • Data collection to identify and quantify the sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions IMAC CRP

    27. Team Four – ServiceProgress & Plans 6. Vehicle end of life • Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association • Raise awareness in this sector • Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL refrigerant recovery IMAC CRP

    28. Original 2004 announcement: “over $3 million in cash and in-kind contributions” Program on track to surpass initial funding plan Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans IMAC CRP

    29. Status After One Year • All 4 teams are operational and making progress • Industry participation is high • The program is on track to meet scope, funding and technical targets IMAC CRP