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Respiratory Systems. Internal Gills . Respiratory systems in animals. How to maximize rate of diffusion? . Thin gills (blood vessels close to surface of gill). Feather-like structure increases surface area of gill. Constantly ‘pump’ water across gills.

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respiratory systems
Respiratory Systems
  • Internal Gills
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • How to maximize rate of diffusion?
  • Thin gills (blood vessels close to surface of gill)
  • Feather-like structure increases surface area of gill
  • Constantly ‘pump’ water across gills
  • Uses counter-current system in gills to increase DP
  • What constraints are associated with this system?
  • Gills very efficient in water but do not work on land
  • Gills lack support needed in less-buoyant air
  • All respiratory surfaces must be moist; gills would have large surface area exposed to dry air

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems2
Respiratory Systems
  • Tracheae
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta
  • Air-filled passages carry gases directly to and from tissues
  • Air enters through spiracles in abdomen

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems3
Respiratory Systems
  • Tracheae
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • How to maximize rate of diffusion?
  • Many spiracles increase surface area through which gas moves
  • Gases travel directly to tissues (small d)
  • What constraints are associated with this system?
  • Must remain small (maintain high surface area to volume)

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems4
Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Amphibia
  • Amphibian lungs are saclike pouches of digestive system
  • Surface area increased by folds of lung; less surface area than other vertebrates
  • use positive-pressurebreathing
  • fill buccal cavity with air
  • Close mouth and nostrils
  • Push floor of buccal cavity upward to push air into lungs

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems5
Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Amphibian also use cutaneous respiration (particularly when active)
  • Amphibian lungs solve problems of gills:
  • Body supplies structural support for respiratory structures
  • Lung minimizes evaporation by moving air into body where it becomes saturated with water vapor
  • But relatively low surface area, positive-pressure breathing, and use of uniform pool of air not efficient
  • Constraints: small size, relatively low metabolic rates

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems6
Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Mammalia
  • Mammalian activities require more efficient respiratory systems
  • Lungs have alveoli (tiny clusters of sacs) to increase surface area
  • Capillary network on surface of thin-walled aveoli

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems7
Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Mammalian activities require more efficient respiratory system
  • Negative-pressurebreathing
  • Diaphragm contracts causing the chest cavity to expand
  • Volume of lungs increases and air rushes in
  • More efficient than positive-pressure breathing

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems8
Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Aves
  • Most efficient respiratory system of all terrestrial vertebrates
  • Gas exchange in air vessels called parabronchi
  • Air moves through parabronchi in one direction only
  • No mixing of freshly inhaled air with old air not exhaled
  • Unidirectional flow of air requires use of airsacs (unique to birds)
  • Flow of blood 90o to flow of air in parabronchi (cross-currentflow); extract more O2 from air than mammals

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems9
Respiratory Systems
  • Respiratory system in birds (two-cycle respiration)
  • Respiratory systems in animals

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems10

Respiration in two cycles

Respiratory Systems
  • Lungs
  • Respiratory systems in animals
  • Inhalation 1: air from outside goes to posterior air sacs
  • Exhalation 1: air from posterior air sacs to lungs
  • Inhalation 2: air from lungs to anterior air sacs
  • Exhalation 2: air from anterior air sacs leaves the body

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?

respiratory systems11
Respiratory Systems
  • Review of variation in respiratory systems
  • Respiratory systems in animals

How do organisms ‘solve’ common problems?