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REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

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REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

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  1. REINFORCEMENT THEORIES HOW IS GOOD BEHAVIOR SUSTAINED OVER TIME? The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Assumes that: • Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated.

  2. REINFORCEMENT THEORY(SKINNER 72) ASSUMPTIONS: The consequences of past actions will influence our future actions We repeat behaviors which lead to rewards that are satisfying We reduce behaviors which go unrewarded or lead to punishment Thus, tie valued rewards to desired behaviors in the workplace It is better to positively reinforce behavior than to use punishment TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT POSITIVE AVOIDANCE (NEGATIVE) EXTINCTION PUNISHMENT

  3. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT CONTINUOUS (every time) New behaviors are quickly learned, but also stop quickly when unrewarded INTERMITTENT (not every time) Fixed-Ratio Fixed-Interval Variable-Ratio Variable-Interval Takes longer to learn new behaviors, but behavior is sustained over a longer period of time

  4. 5 MOST EFFECTIVE REINFORCERSWARREN • MONEY Basic Needs? • (Tangible Compensation) • RECOGNITION Need for Recognition and Esteem? • (Publicity, Praise) • FLEXIBILITY Need for Autonomy and Control? • (Discretion, Autonomy, Freedom) • OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN Need to Grow? • (Education, Development, Training) • PROMOTION Need for Power and Influence? • (More Influence, Power, Authority)

  5. SOME CONCERNS WITH THE USE OF REWARDS ARE REWARDS PERCEIVED AS IMPORTANT AND DESIRABLE? CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN INCREMENTALLY AND FLEXIBLY? CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN FREQUENTLY, OR DO THEY “WEAR OUT?” ARE WORKERS LIKELY TO FEEL MANIPULATED? WILL GIVING EXTRINSIC REWARDS ERODE INTRINSIC VALUES?

  6. WHAT ARE YOU REWARDING (REINFORCING) WITH YOUR “PAY” SYSTEM? • TIME SPENT ON-THE JOB • LONGEVITY (SENIORITY) WITH THE FIRM • DEMONSTRATED SKILLS & COMPETENCIES • PAST ACHIEVEMENTS & ACCOMPLISHMENTS • CURRENT PERFORMANCE & PRODUCTIVITY REMEMBER, YOU GET WHAT YOU REWARD!! HOW MUCH OF EACH COMPENSATION DOLLAR SHOULD BE PAID CONTINGENT ON PERFORMANCE? 5 % 10% 15% 25% 50% 100% ????

  7. INCENTIVE PLANS • Incentives for Seniority and Longevity • Acquired Skills and Knowledge Incentives • Piece Rates and Commissions • Merit Review Plans • Suggestion Systems • Cost Reduction (Gain-sharing) Plans • Profit-Sharing Plans • Stock Ownership Plans • Special Awards and Contests Does your organization use any of these incentive plans? What are you trying to reward? Is the plan successful?

  8. LEADERSHIP THEORIES TRAIT THEORY GHISELLI BASES OF INFLUENCE (POWER) FRENCH & RAVEN BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY BLAKE & MOUTON CONTINGENCY THEORIES FIEDLER HOUSE & MITCHELL VROOM & YETTON ROLE THEORIES MINTZBERG

  9. TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIPGHISELLI LEADERS ARE “BORN,” NOT MADE • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS APPEARANCE, HEIGHT, AGE • PERSONALITY EXTROVERSION, PERSISTENCE, SELF-ASSURANCE, DECISIVENESS • INTELLIGENCE KNOWLEDGE, ABILITY, JUDGMENT • SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS TACT, DIPLOMACY, SOCIABILITY, FLUENCY THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS *** EXTROVERSION (AMBITION, ENERGY) ** CONSCIENTIOUSNESS ** OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE * EMOTIONAL STABILITY (SELF-CONFIDENCE) AGREEABLENESS

  10. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP • VISION & ARTICULATION PROPOSES A BETTER FUTURE – AN OPTIMISTIC GOAL DELIVERED CLEARLY IN A CONVINCING FASHION • PERSONAL RISK WILLING TO TAKE RISKS & INCUR COSTS TO ACHIEVE THE VISION SELF-SACRIFICE WILL BE NECESSARY • ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY KNOWS WHETHER THE ENVIRONMENT WILL BE SUPPORTIVE KNOWS WHAT RESOURCES ARE NEEDED TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE • SENSITIVITY TO FOLLOWERS PERCEPTIVE OF OTHERS’ ABILITIES, NEEDS & FEELINGS TAPS INTO FOLLOWER EMOTIONS • UNCONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR MAY DO THINGS THAT ARE NOVEL, OR CONTRARY TO THE NORMS IS THE VISION VALUE-BASED? WILL THE FOLLOWERS BECOME ENTHUSIASTIC? DO THE PEOPLE BELIEVE THE VISION IS ATTAINABLE? ARE CHARISMATIC LEADERS “BORN” OR CAN THEY BE TAUGHT? CORRELATED WITH HIGH SATISFACTION AMONG FOLLOWERS EFFECTIVE WHEN THERE IS AN IDEOLOGICAL PART TO THE TASK, OR FACING STRESS & UNCERTAINTY CHARISMATIC LEADERS – DON’T TOLERATE CRITICISM, SURROUND THEMSELVES WITH “YES” PEOPLE 29 FIRMS STUDY --- FOUND AN ABSENCE OF EGO-DRIVEN CHARISMATIC LEADERS

  11. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP • INSPIRATIONAL, IDEA-ORIENTED, VISIONARY • DRAMATIC, AROUSES INTENSE FEELINGS • COMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS & A NEED FOR CHANGE • UNPREDICTABLE • RELIES ON REFERENT OR CHARISMATIC POWER • RAISES LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND COMMITMENT • GETS FOLLOWERS TO TRANSCEND THEIR SELF-INTERESTS • REQUIRES TRUST AND BELIEF IN THE VISION PRESENTED TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP • EXCHANGES REWARDS FOR SERVICES • MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION (Watches for deviations) • KEEPS THE SYSTEM OPERATING SMOOTHLY • USES REWARD AND COERCIVE POWER BASES • RECOGNIZES WHAT WORKERS WANT & TRIES TO DELIVER IT • REWARDS ACCORDING TO WORKER EFFORT • RESPONSIVE TO WORKER SELF-INTERESTS IS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BUILT “ON TOP OF” TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP, OR IS IT JUST A SPECIAL CASE OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?

  12. SUMMARY OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP ASSUMPTION LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE! IMPLICATION WE MUST BE VERY CAREFUL IN HOW WE SELECT OUR LEADERS LIMITATIONS IT OVERLOOKS THE NEEDS OF FOLLOWERS IT IGNORES SITUATIONAL FACTORS CAUSE AND EFFECT ARE NOT CLEARLY DEFINED DO SELF-CONFIDENT LEADERS CAUSE FIRMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, OR DOES A SUCCESSFUL FIRM ALLOW A LEADER TO FEEL SELF-CONFIDENT?

  13. BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEFRENCH & RAVEN (59) LEGITIMATE POWER Authority to command, based on the position REWARD POWER Able to award positive, desired outcomes COERCIVE POWER Able to threaten, punish or harm EXPERT POWER Influence based on knowledge and information REFERENT POWER Influence based on charisma, identification and trust

  14. MOST LIKELY OUTCOMES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEYUKL (89) • RESISTANCE COERCIVE • COMPLIANCE LEGITIMATE REWARD • COMMITMENT EXPERT REFERENT

  15. GUIDELINES FOR USING POWERYUKL (89) EXPERT POWER • ACT CONFIDENT AND DECISIVE • KEEP INFORMED • DON’T THREATEN SUBORDINATES’ SELF-ESTEEM – BE APPROACHABLE • WILLING TO SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS REFERENT POWER • TREAT SUBORDINATES FAIRLY • DEFEND SUBORDINATES’ INTERESTS • BE SENSITIVE TO SUBORDINATES’ NEEDS & FEELINGS LEGITIMATE POWER • BE CORDIAL, POLITE, AND CONFIDENT • MAKE APPROPRIATE REQUESTS • FOLLOW PROPER CHANNELS • EXERCISE POWER REGULARLY AND ENFORCE COMPLIANCE REWARD POWER • VERIFY COMPLIANCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS • OFFER REWARDS FOR DESIRED ACTIONS AND BEHAVIORS • OFFER CREDIBLE REWARDS THAT ARE DESIRED BY SUBORDINATES COERCIVE POWER • INFORM SUBORDINATES OF RULES AND PENALTIES • UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION BEFORE ACTING & WARN BEFORE PUNISHING • ADMINISTER PUNISHMENT CONSISTENTLY & PUNISH IN PRIVATE

  16. HOW DO PEOPLE RESPOND TO ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS? • DECREASED JOB SATISFACTION • INCREASED ANXIETY AND STRESS • INCREASED TURNOVER • REDUCED PERFORMANCE PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES • GAIN CONTROL OF CRITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES • CONTROL THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION • CONTROL THE SOURCE OF CRITICAL INFORMATION • CONTROL THE AGENDA • CONTROL THE CHOICE OF DECISION CRITERIA • CONTROL SELECTION OF CONSULTANTS AND OUTSIDE EXPERTS • BUILD A COALITION (Allies) • SUPPORT YOUR BOSS (KEEP ‘EM HAPPY) • BE VISIBLE…BUILD UP YOUR IMAGE (IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT) • ASSOCIATE YOURSELF WITH PAST SUCCESSES • TAKE CREDIT FOR PREVIOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS • MAKE YOURSELF APPEAR INDISPENSIBLE

  17. POWER AND POLITICS WHEN “A” CAN GET “B” TO DO SOMETHING “B” WOULDN’T NORMALLY DO WHEN I WANT A PARTICULAR RESULT, HOW DO I GET MY WAY? YOU MUST PERCEIVE THAT YOU ARE DEPENDENT ON ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL FOR THAT INDIVIDUAL TO HAVE POWER OVER YOU. USING YOUR POWER TO PUSH A GROUP TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOALS YOU DESIRE. DOING WHAT THE PERSON WITH THE MOST POWER WANTS. PROBLEMS WITH POWER NEGATIVE PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE WHO USE THEIR POWER ADDICTIVENESS OF POWER (POWER CORRUPTS!)

  18. DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER • The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater power A has over B. • If something is plentiful, possession of it will not increase your power. DEPENDENCY IS INCREASED WHEN THE RESOURCE YOU CONTROL IS: IMPORTANT Ability to reduce uncertainty Is the dependency situational? • MARKETING, ENGINEERING, LABOR NEGOTIATORS SCARCE A rare resource Highly specialized knowledge Information that’s not readily available NONSUBSTITUTABLE No viable alternatives

  19. WHO HAS THE POWER? LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS: • Can intercede favorable on behalf of someone in trouble in the firm • Able to get approval for expenditures beyond the budget • Able to get items on the agenda at major meetings • Can get fast access to top decision makers in the organization UPWARD POWER TACTICS PERSUADE A SUPERIOR TO ACCEPT A NEW IDEA? • REASON AND LOGIC • COALITIONS SEEKING BENEFITS FROM A SUPERIOR?. • KIND WORDS & FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIPS • NEGOTIATIONS & BARGAINING DOWNWARD POWER TACTICS GET A SUBORDINATE TO DO SOMETHING NEW • REASON • ASSERTIVENESS • FRIENDLINESS • SANCTIONS

  20. POWER TACTICSYUKL & FALBE (90) 1. WHO CONTROLS THE RESOURCES I NEED? 2. HOW CAN I GET THEM TO HELP ME GET WHAT I DESIRE? LEGITIMACY THE REQUEST IS ACCORDING TO THE COMPANY RULES / POLICIES EXCHANGE NEGOTIATED COOPERATION; BARGAINED IF I HELP YOU, WHAT REWARDS WILL I RECEIVE IN RETURN? PRESSURE USE OF DEMANDS, THREATS OR INTIMIDATION TO GET OTHERS TO COMPLY COOPERATE…OR ELSE!! INGRATIATION VOLUNTARILY DOING NICE (UNEXPECTED) THINGS FOR OTHERS NOW, WITH THE EXPECTATION THAT IN THE FUTURE, THEY’LL OWE YOU SOMETHING IN RETURN A REMINDER OF HOW NICE OR HELPFUL I WAS TO YOU IN THE PAST RATIONAL PERSUASION CONVINCING OTHERS THAT YOUR PLAN OF ACTION IS MORE LOGICAL THAN THE OTHER IDEAS THEY WILL BE BETTER OFF IF THEY DO AS YOU SUGGEST UPWARD APPEALS ASKING HIGHER AUTHORITIES TO CONVINCE OTHERS TO SUPPORT YOUR EFFORTS OR POSITION INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS MAKING EMOTIONAL REQUESTS WHICH ATTEMPT TO APPEAL TO OTHERS’ FEELINGS AND VALUES CONSULTATION (COOPTATION) SEEKING TO ADVISE OR PARTICIPATE IN THE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING SINCE THEY’RE INVOLVED, THEY SHOULD SUPPORT THE ACTION THAT HAS RESULTED COALITIONS FORMING A GROUP OF ALLIES WHICH HAVE COMMON INTERESTS

  21. FOUR BASIC FORMS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR • INDUCEMENT (exchanges) • PERSUASION (rational and emotional) • CREATING A SENSE OF OBLIGATION • COERCION

  22. SUMMARY ON POWER & POLITICS IF YOU WANT TO GET THINGS DONE…IT HELPS TO HAVE POWER THE WORKERS WHO FEEL POWERLESS ARE OFTEN THE ONES WHO ARE DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH, ARGUMENTATIVE, AND TEMPERMENTAL. EXPERT AND REFERENT / CHARISMATIC FORMS OF POWER ARE PERSONAL COERCIVE, REWARD AND LEGITIMATE POWER ARE DERIVED FROM THE FIRM EFFECTIVE MANAGERS LEARN HOW TO DEVELOP & USE THEIR EXPERT POWER BASE THE EFFECTIVE MANAGER ACCEPTS THE POLITICAL NATURE OF THE WORKPLACE AND LEARNS HOW TO “PLAY THE GAME” SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE “POLITICALLY ASTUTE” THAN OTHERS. THEY ARE GOOD AT PLAYING POLITICS, GET GOOD PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS, LARGER SALARY INCREASES, MORE PROMOTIONS AND HAVE HIGHER JOB SATISFACTION THAN THE POLICIALLY NAÏVE OR INEPT. PEOPLE WITH MODEST POLITICAL SKILLS OR THOSE WHO ARE UNWILLING TO PLAY THE POLITICAL GAMES AT WORK MAY SUFFER FROM LOWER JOB SATISFACTION, LOWER PERFORMANCE LEVELS, INCRREASED ANXIETY AND HIGHER TURNOVER.

  23. BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES OHIO STATE STUDIES INITIATING STRUCTURE v. CONSIDERATION FIELD STUDY: IS = Satisf down, C = Satisf up MICHIGAN STUDIES JOB-CENTERED v. EMPLOYEE-CENTERED FIELD EXPERIMENT: JC = Satisf down, EC = Satisf up JC = Productivity up 25%, EC = Productivity up 20% THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON (64) CONCERN FOR PEOPLE CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION FIVE STYLES Impoverished, Authority/Obedience (Task), Middle of the Road, Country Club, Team IS THERE A THIRD DIMENSION---DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED BEHAVIOR?

  24. THE MANAGERIAL GRIDBLAKE & MOUTON (64)

  25. SUMMARY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP ASSUMPTION Leaders are effective because of the actions they take IMPLICATION We can learn to become leaders by studying what effective leaders do LIMITATIONS Situational factors that influence success or failure are ignored Leaders need to be flexible…you can’t lead the same way all the time

  26. LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVESJAGO (82) APPROACH UNIVERSAL CONTINGENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TRAITS TRAIT FIEDLER’S THEORIES CONTINGENCY THEORY FOCUS ON - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - OHIO STATE PATH-GOAL MICH STUDIES VROOM-YETTON BEHAVIORS LEADER GRID LIFE-CYCLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  27. CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIPFIEDLER (65) LEADER CHARACTERISTICS (Least-Preferred Coworker Scale) HIGH LPC --- EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ORIENTED LOW LPC --- TASK ORIENTED SITUATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS TASK STRUCTURE LEADER POSITION POWER FAVORABLE LEADER SITUATIONS MOST FAVORABLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - LEAST FAVORABLE LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS G G G G N N N N TASK STRUCTURE G G N N G G N N LEADER POSITION POWER G N G N G N G N EFFECTIVE STYLE TASK EMPLOYEE TASK FIEDLER’S CONTRIBUTIONS • LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IS SITUATIONAL • TASK LEADERSHIP IS VALUABLE AND IMPORTANT • MODIFY SITUATIONS TO FIT THE LEADER’S STYLE

  28. MANIPULATING THE SITUATION MODIFY LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS SPEND MORE (OR LESS) TIME WITH SUBORDINATES ORGANIZE SOME OFF-WORK GROUP ACTIVITIES INCREASE (OR DECREASE) YOUR AVAILABILITY TO WORKERS RAISE MORALE BY OBTAINING POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR SUBORDINATES TRANSFER SUBORDINATES INTO (OR OUT OF) YOUR UNIT REQUEST COMPATIBLE PEOPLE FOR WORK IN YOUR GROUP MODIFY TASK STRUCTURE ASK FOR TASKS WHICH ARE MORE STUCTURED LEARN ALL YOU CAN ABOUT THE TASK BREAK THE JOB DOWN INTO SMALLER SUB-TASKS LEAVE THE TASK IN RELATIVELY VAGUE FORM ENRICH JOBS THROUGH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EXPANSION MODIFY POSITION POWER SHOW SUBORDINATES WHO’ BOSS --- EXERCISE YOUR POWERS FULLY BECOME AN EXPERT ABOUT JOBS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE ALL INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES IS CHANNELED THROUGH YOU ASK MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AND PLANNING TRY TO BE “ONE OF THE GANG” --- DOWNPLAY YOUR POWER LET ASSISTANTS EXERCISE MORE POWER ASK MANAGEMENT TO GIVE YOU MORE DISCRETION AND AUTONOMY

  29. LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY(SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY) HERSEY & BLANCHARD (77) LEADER BEHAVIORS NEED TO VARY, DEPENDING ON THE MATURITY OF THE WORKERS DIRECTIVE STYLE (TELLING) GIVES CLEAR DIRECTION & INSTRUCTIONS TO IMMATURE EMPLOYEES FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE AND UNWILLING (INSECURE) COACHING STYLE (SELLING) EXPANDS TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION, HELPS MATURING EMPLOYEES BUILD CONFIDENCE AND MOTIVATION FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE, BUT WILLING TO TRY SUPPORTING STYLE (PARTICIPATING) EMPLOYEE FEEL COMPETENT, ACTIVE TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION STILL NEEDED FOR SHARED DECISIONS FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE BUT APPREHENSIVE AUTONOMOUS STYLE (DELEGATING) GIVES RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING TO HIGHLY MATURE EMPLOYEES FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE AND WILLING TASK BEHAVIORS START OUT HIGH, AND GRADUALLY DECLINE RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS START LOW, BUILD, THEN DECLINE AGAIN AN INTUITIVE THEORY, BUT EMPIRICAL SUPPORT HAS NOT BEEN STRONG

  30. PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIPHOUSE & MITCHELL (74) SITUATIONAL FACTORS CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBORDINATES LOCUS OF CONTROL EXPERIENCE PERCEIVED ABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT TASK STRUCTURE FORMAL AUTHORITY SYSTEM WORK GROUP LEADER STYLES DIRECTIVE SUPPORTIVE ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED PARTICIPATIVE THE LEADER COMPENSATES FOR THINGS LACKING IN EITHER THE EMPLOYEE OR THE WORK SETTING TO HELP THE WORKER PERFORM EFFECTIVELY

  31. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE LETS SUBORDINATES KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED PLANS AND SCHEDULES WORK TO BE DONE GIVES SPECIFIC GUIDANCE -- WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AND HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE MAINTAINS CLEAR STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE SUPPORTIVE SHOWS CONCERN FOR WELL-BEING OF SUBORDINATES TREATS MEMBERS AS EQUALS DOES LITTLE THINGS TO MAKE THE WORK MORE PLEASANT IS FRIENDLY AND APPROACHABLE ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED SETS CHALLENGING GOALS EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL SEEKS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE, WHILE SHOWING CONFIDENCE IN WORKERS PARTICIPATIVE CONSULTS WITH SUBORDINATES SOLICITS SUGGESTIONS TAKES SUGGESTIONS SERIOUSLY INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE MAKING DECISIONS

  32. VERTICAL DYAD (EXCHANGE) MODEL(LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE MODEL) GRAEN (75) • LEADERS INVEST THEIR TIME & ATTENTION IN THOSE EXPECTED TO PERFORM BEST • LEADER CREATES AN “IN-GROUP” (THE “FAVORED FEW”) & AN “OUT-GROUP” • IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS MAY DEMONSTRATE THE “SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY” IN-GROUPS • RECEIVE SPECIAL DUTIES AND HAVE SPECIAL PRIVILEGES • ARE GIVEN MORE AUTONOMY AND RESPONSIBILITY • EXPERIENCE HIGHER SATISFACTION • ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE • ARE PART OF THE LEADER’S SUPPORT NETWORK OUT_GROUPS • ARE NOT TRUSTED • ARE NOT GIVEN DESIRABLE WORK ASSIGNMENTS • RECEIVE LESS LEADER TIME AND ATTENTION • “LIVE DOWN” TO LEADER EXPECTATIONS • ARE LESS LIKELY TO SUPPORT THE LEADER IN-GROUP MEMBERS SELECTED BASED ON: • COMPETENCE AND ABILITY • PERSONAL COMPATIBILITY WITH THE LEADER

  33. SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIPKERR & JERIMER (78) SUBSTITUTES ARE FACTORS THAT CAN NEUTRALIZE THE INFLUENCE OF LEADER BEHAVIOR LOOK FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF: THE SUBORDINATES THE TASK THE ORGANIZATION FOR INITIATING STRUCTURE ABILITY AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SUBORDINATES STANDARDIZED, UNAMBIGUOUS, ROUTINIZED TASKS DETAILED RULES & PROCEDURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION FOR CONSIDERATION INTRINSIC APPEAL OF THE TASK ITSELF ESTEEM OF PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES SUPPORTIVE AND COHESIVE WORK GROUP

  34. SUMMARY OF CONTINGENCY THEORIES THE CONTINGENCY THEORY Fiedler (65) PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY Vroom & Yetton (73) PATH-GOAL THEORY House & Mitchell (74) VERTICAL DYAD (LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE) THEORY Graen (75) LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY Hersey & Blanchard (77) SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP Kerr & Jerimer (78) CONCLUSIONS RE: CONTINGENCY THEORIES THERE IS NO “ONE BEST WAY” TO LEAD LEADERS SHOULD KNOW THEIR OWN PREFERRED STYLE KNOW HOW TO CAREFULLY DIAGNOSE YOUR WORK SITUATION UNDERSTAND WHICH ACTIONS TO TAKE TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION

  35. MANAGERIAL ROLESMINTZBERG (73) INTERPERSONAL ROLES • Figurehead (Ceremonial) • Leader (Supervisor) • Liaison (Linking-Pin) INFORMATIONAL ROLES • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson DECISIONAL ROLES • Innovator (Entrepreneur) • Disturbance Handler (Crisis) • Resource Allocator • Negotiator

  36. LEADERSHIP AND TRUST AN EXPECTATION THAT THE LEADER WILL NOT TAKE UNFAIR ADVANTAGE OF ME IS MY LEADER TRUSTWORTHY? FIVE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST INTEGRITY -- honest and truthful COMPETENCE -- has good technical knowledge & interpersonal skills CONSISTENCY -- is reliable, predictable, and has good judgement LOYALTY -- will look out for me and protect me; won’t take advantage OPENNESS -- will talk to me and tell me the truth (what’s going on) DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST --WE CAN RETALIATE OR STRIKE BACK IF HARMED…DON’T REALLY HAVE A HISTORY KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST --CAN PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN BASED ON EXPERIENCE…GIVE A SECOND CHANCE? IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST --- KNOW EACH OTHER INTIMATELY, ACT FOR EACH OTHER BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRUST MISTRUST DRIVES OUT TRUST TRUST BEGETS TRUST GROWTH OFTEN MASKS DISTRUST DECLINE OR DOWNSIZING TESTS THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF TRUST TRUST INCREASES COHESION MISTRUSTING GROUPS SELF-DESTRUCT MISTRUST GENERALLY REDUCES PRODUCTIVITY

  37. 7 KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIPLabich 99 • Trust your Subordinates • Develop a Vision • Keep Cool • Encourage Risk • Be an Expert • Invite Dissent • Simplify Things