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REINFORCEMENT THEORIES. HOW IS GOOD BEHAVIOR SUSTAINED OVER TIME? The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Assumes that:

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Reinforcement theories l.jpg
REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

HOW IS GOOD BEHAVIOR SUSTAINED OVER TIME?

The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time.

Assumes that:

  • Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated.


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REINFORCEMENT THEORY(SKINNER 72)

ASSUMPTIONS:

The consequences of past actions will influence our future actions

We repeat behaviors which lead to rewards that are satisfying

We reduce behaviors which go unrewarded or lead to punishment

Thus, tie valued rewards to desired behaviors in the workplace

It is better to positively reinforce behavior than to use punishment

TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

POSITIVE

AVOIDANCE (NEGATIVE)

EXTINCTION

PUNISHMENT


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SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT

CONTINUOUS (every time)

New behaviors are quickly learned, but also stop quickly when unrewarded

INTERMITTENT (not every time)

Fixed-Ratio

Fixed-Interval

Variable-Ratio

Variable-Interval

Takes longer to learn new behaviors, but behavior is sustained over a longer period of time


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5 MOST EFFECTIVE REINFORCERSWARREN

  • MONEY Basic Needs?

    • (Tangible Compensation)

  • RECOGNITION Need for Recognition and Esteem?

    • (Publicity, Praise)

  • FLEXIBILITY Need for Autonomy and Control?

    • (Discretion, Autonomy, Freedom)

  • OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN Need to Grow?

    • (Education, Development, Training)

  • PROMOTION Need for Power and Influence?

    • (More Influence, Power, Authority)


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SOME CONCERNS WITH THE USE OF REWARDS

ARE REWARDS PERCEIVED AS IMPORTANT AND DESIRABLE?

CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN INCREMENTALLY AND FLEXIBLY?

CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN FREQUENTLY, OR DO THEY “WEAR OUT?”

ARE WORKERS LIKELY TO FEEL MANIPULATED?

WILL GIVING EXTRINSIC REWARDS ERODE INTRINSIC VALUES?


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WHAT ARE YOU REWARDING (REINFORCING) WITH YOUR “PAY” SYSTEM?

  • TIME SPENT ON-THE JOB

  • LONGEVITY (SENIORITY) WITH THE FIRM

  • DEMONSTRATED SKILLS & COMPETENCIES

  • PAST ACHIEVEMENTS & ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  • CURRENT PERFORMANCE & PRODUCTIVITY

    REMEMBER, YOU GET WHAT YOU REWARD!!

    HOW MUCH OF EACH COMPENSATION DOLLAR SHOULD BE PAID CONTINGENT ON PERFORMANCE?

    5 % 10% 15% 25% 50% 100% ????


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INCENTIVE PLANS SYSTEM?

  • Incentives for Seniority and Longevity

  • Acquired Skills and Knowledge Incentives

  • Piece Rates and Commissions

  • Merit Review Plans

  • Suggestion Systems

  • Cost Reduction (Gain-sharing) Plans

  • Profit-Sharing Plans

  • Stock Ownership Plans

  • Special Awards and Contests

    Does your organization use any of these incentive plans?

    What are you trying to reward? Is the plan successful?


Leadership theories l.jpg
LEADERSHIP THEORIES SYSTEM?

TRAIT THEORY

GHISELLI

BASES OF INFLUENCE (POWER)

FRENCH & RAVEN

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

BLAKE & MOUTON

CONTINGENCY THEORIES

FIEDLER

HOUSE & MITCHELL

VROOM & YETTON

ROLE THEORIES

MINTZBERG


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TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?GHISELLI

LEADERS ARE “BORN,” NOT MADE

  • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    APPEARANCE, HEIGHT, AGE

  • PERSONALITY

    EXTROVERSION, PERSISTENCE, SELF-ASSURANCE, DECISIVENESS

  • INTELLIGENCE

    KNOWLEDGE, ABILITY, JUDGMENT

  • SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS

    TACT, DIPLOMACY, SOCIABILITY, FLUENCY

    THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS

    *** EXTROVERSION (AMBITION, ENERGY)

    ** CONSCIENTIOUSNESS

    ** OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

    * EMOTIONAL STABILITY (SELF-CONFIDENCE)

    AGREEABLENESS


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CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?

  • VISION & ARTICULATION

    PROPOSES A BETTER FUTURE – AN OPTIMISTIC GOAL

    DELIVERED CLEARLY IN A CONVINCING FASHION

  • PERSONAL RISK

    WILLING TO TAKE RISKS & INCUR COSTS TO ACHIEVE THE VISION

    SELF-SACRIFICE WILL BE NECESSARY

  • ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY

    KNOWS WHETHER THE ENVIRONMENT WILL BE SUPPORTIVE

    KNOWS WHAT RESOURCES ARE NEEDED TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE

  • SENSITIVITY TO FOLLOWERS

    PERCEPTIVE OF OTHERS’ ABILITIES, NEEDS & FEELINGS

    TAPS INTO FOLLOWER EMOTIONS

  • UNCONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR

    MAY DO THINGS THAT ARE NOVEL, OR CONTRARY TO THE NORMS

    IS THE VISION VALUE-BASED? WILL THE FOLLOWERS BECOME ENTHUSIASTIC?

    DO THE PEOPLE BELIEVE THE VISION IS ATTAINABLE?

    ARE CHARISMATIC LEADERS “BORN” OR CAN THEY BE TAUGHT?

    CORRELATED WITH HIGH SATISFACTION AMONG FOLLOWERS

    EFFECTIVE WHEN THERE IS AN IDEOLOGICAL PART TO THE TASK, OR FACING STRESS & UNCERTAINTY

    CHARISMATIC LEADERS – DON’T TOLERATE CRITICISM, SURROUND THEMSELVES WITH “YES” PEOPLE

    29 FIRMS STUDY --- FOUND AN ABSENCE OF EGO-DRIVEN CHARISMATIC LEADERS


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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?

  • INSPIRATIONAL, IDEA-ORIENTED, VISIONARY

  • DRAMATIC, AROUSES INTENSE FEELINGS

  • COMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS & A NEED FOR CHANGE

  • UNPREDICTABLE

    • RELIES ON REFERENT OR CHARISMATIC POWER

    • RAISES LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND COMMITMENT

    • GETS FOLLOWERS TO TRANSCEND THEIR SELF-INTERESTS

    • REQUIRES TRUST AND BELIEF IN THE VISION PRESENTED

      TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

  • EXCHANGES REWARDS FOR SERVICES

  • MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION (Watches for deviations)

  • KEEPS THE SYSTEM OPERATING SMOOTHLY

    • USES REWARD AND COERCIVE POWER BASES

    • RECOGNIZES WHAT WORKERS WANT & TRIES TO DELIVER IT

    • REWARDS ACCORDING TO WORKER EFFORT

    • RESPONSIVE TO WORKER SELF-INTERESTS

      IS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BUILT “ON TOP OF” TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP, OR IS IT JUST A SPECIAL CASE OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?


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SUMMARY OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?

ASSUMPTION

LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE!

IMPLICATION

WE MUST BE VERY CAREFUL IN HOW WE SELECT OUR LEADERS

LIMITATIONS

IT OVERLOOKS THE NEEDS OF FOLLOWERS

IT IGNORES SITUATIONAL FACTORS

CAUSE AND EFFECT ARE NOT CLEARLY DEFINED

DO SELF-CONFIDENT LEADERS CAUSE FIRMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, OR DOES A SUCCESSFUL FIRM ALLOW A LEADER TO FEEL SELF-CONFIDENT?


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BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCE SYSTEM?FRENCH & RAVEN (59)

LEGITIMATE POWER

Authority to command, based on the position

REWARD POWER

Able to award positive, desired outcomes

COERCIVE POWER

Able to threaten, punish or harm

EXPERT POWER

Influence based on knowledge and information

REFERENT POWER

Influence based on charisma, identification and trust


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MOST LIKELY OUTCOMES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCE SYSTEM?YUKL (89)

  • RESISTANCE

    COERCIVE

  • COMPLIANCE

    LEGITIMATE

    REWARD

  • COMMITMENT

    EXPERT

    REFERENT


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GUIDELINES FOR USING POWER SYSTEM?YUKL (89)

EXPERT POWER

  • ACT CONFIDENT AND DECISIVE

  • KEEP INFORMED

  • DON’T THREATEN SUBORDINATES’ SELF-ESTEEM – BE APPROACHABLE

  • WILLING TO SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS

    REFERENT POWER

  • TREAT SUBORDINATES FAIRLY

  • DEFEND SUBORDINATES’ INTERESTS

  • BE SENSITIVE TO SUBORDINATES’ NEEDS & FEELINGS

    LEGITIMATE POWER

  • BE CORDIAL, POLITE, AND CONFIDENT

  • MAKE APPROPRIATE REQUESTS

  • FOLLOW PROPER CHANNELS

  • EXERCISE POWER REGULARLY AND ENFORCE COMPLIANCE

    REWARD POWER

  • VERIFY COMPLIANCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  • OFFER REWARDS FOR DESIRED ACTIONS AND BEHAVIORS

  • OFFER CREDIBLE REWARDS THAT ARE DESIRED BY SUBORDINATES

    COERCIVE POWER

  • INFORM SUBORDINATES OF RULES AND PENALTIES

  • UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION BEFORE ACTING & WARN BEFORE PUNISHING

  • ADMINISTER PUNISHMENT CONSISTENTLY & PUNISH IN PRIVATE


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HOW DO PEOPLE RESPOND TO ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS? SYSTEM?

  • DECREASED JOB SATISFACTION

  • INCREASED ANXIETY AND STRESS

  • INCREASED TURNOVER

  • REDUCED PERFORMANCE

    PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

  • GAIN CONTROL OF CRITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES

  • CONTROL THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION

  • CONTROL THE SOURCE OF CRITICAL INFORMATION

  • CONTROL THE AGENDA

  • CONTROL THE CHOICE OF DECISION CRITERIA

  • CONTROL SELECTION OF CONSULTANTS AND OUTSIDE EXPERTS

  • BUILD A COALITION (Allies)

  • SUPPORT YOUR BOSS (KEEP ‘EM HAPPY)

  • BE VISIBLE…BUILD UP YOUR IMAGE (IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT)

    • ASSOCIATE YOURSELF WITH PAST SUCCESSES

    • TAKE CREDIT FOR PREVIOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    • MAKE YOURSELF APPEAR INDISPENSIBLE


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POWER AND POLITICS SYSTEM?

WHEN “A” CAN GET “B” TO DO SOMETHING “B” WOULDN’T NORMALLY DO

WHEN I WANT A PARTICULAR RESULT, HOW DO I GET MY WAY?

YOU MUST PERCEIVE THAT YOU ARE DEPENDENT ON ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL FOR THAT INDIVIDUAL TO HAVE POWER OVER YOU.

USING YOUR POWER TO PUSH A GROUP TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOALS YOU DESIRE.

DOING WHAT THE PERSON WITH THE MOST POWER WANTS.

PROBLEMS WITH POWER

NEGATIVE PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE WHO USE THEIR POWER

ADDICTIVENESS OF POWER (POWER CORRUPTS!)


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DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER SYSTEM?

  • The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater power A has over B.

  • If something is plentiful, possession of it will not increase your power.

    DEPENDENCY IS INCREASED WHEN THE RESOURCE YOU CONTROL IS:

    IMPORTANT

    Ability to reduce uncertainty

    Is the dependency situational?

    • MARKETING, ENGINEERING, LABOR NEGOTIATORS

      SCARCE

      A rare resource

      Highly specialized knowledge

      Information that’s not readily available

      NONSUBSTITUTABLE

      No viable alternatives


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WHO HAS THE POWER? SYSTEM?

LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS:

  • Can intercede favorable on behalf of someone in trouble in the firm

  • Able to get approval for expenditures beyond the budget

  • Able to get items on the agenda at major meetings

  • Can get fast access to top decision makers in the organization

    UPWARD POWER TACTICS

    PERSUADE A SUPERIOR TO ACCEPT A NEW IDEA?

    • REASON AND LOGIC

    • COALITIONS

      SEEKING BENEFITS FROM A SUPERIOR?.

    • KIND WORDS & FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIPS

    • NEGOTIATIONS & BARGAINING

      DOWNWARD POWER TACTICS

      GET A SUBORDINATE TO DO SOMETHING NEW

    • REASON

    • ASSERTIVENESS

    • FRIENDLINESS

    • SANCTIONS


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POWER TACTICS SYSTEM?YUKL & FALBE (90)

1. WHO CONTROLS THE RESOURCES I NEED?

2. HOW CAN I GET THEM TO HELP ME GET WHAT I DESIRE?

LEGITIMACY

THE REQUEST IS ACCORDING TO THE COMPANY RULES / POLICIES

EXCHANGE

NEGOTIATED COOPERATION; BARGAINED

IF I HELP YOU, WHAT REWARDS WILL I RECEIVE IN RETURN?

PRESSURE

USE OF DEMANDS, THREATS OR INTIMIDATION TO GET OTHERS TO COMPLY

COOPERATE…OR ELSE!!

INGRATIATION

VOLUNTARILY DOING NICE (UNEXPECTED) THINGS FOR OTHERS NOW, WITH THE EXPECTATION THAT IN THE FUTURE, THEY’LL OWE YOU SOMETHING IN RETURN

A REMINDER OF HOW NICE OR HELPFUL I WAS TO YOU IN THE PAST

RATIONAL PERSUASION

CONVINCING OTHERS THAT YOUR PLAN OF ACTION IS MORE LOGICAL THAN THE OTHER IDEAS

THEY WILL BE BETTER OFF IF THEY DO AS YOU SUGGEST

UPWARD APPEALS

ASKING HIGHER AUTHORITIES TO CONVINCE OTHERS TO SUPPORT YOUR EFFORTS OR POSITION

INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS

MAKING EMOTIONAL REQUESTS WHICH ATTEMPT TO APPEAL TO OTHERS’ FEELINGS AND VALUES

CONSULTATION (COOPTATION)

SEEKING TO ADVISE OR PARTICIPATE IN THE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING

SINCE THEY’RE INVOLVED, THEY SHOULD SUPPORT THE ACTION THAT HAS RESULTED

COALITIONS

FORMING A GROUP OF ALLIES WHICH HAVE COMMON INTERESTS


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FOUR BASIC FORMS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR SYSTEM?

  • INDUCEMENT (exchanges)

  • PERSUASION (rational and emotional)

  • CREATING A SENSE OF OBLIGATION

  • COERCION


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SUMMARY ON POWER & POLITICS SYSTEM?

IF YOU WANT TO GET THINGS DONE…IT HELPS TO HAVE POWER

THE WORKERS WHO FEEL POWERLESS ARE OFTEN THE ONES WHO ARE DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH, ARGUMENTATIVE, AND TEMPERMENTAL.

EXPERT AND REFERENT / CHARISMATIC FORMS OF POWER ARE PERSONAL

COERCIVE, REWARD AND LEGITIMATE POWER ARE DERIVED FROM THE FIRM

EFFECTIVE MANAGERS LEARN HOW TO DEVELOP & USE THEIR EXPERT POWER BASE

THE EFFECTIVE MANAGER ACCEPTS THE POLITICAL NATURE OF THE WORKPLACE AND LEARNS HOW TO “PLAY THE GAME”

SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE “POLITICALLY ASTUTE” THAN OTHERS. THEY ARE GOOD AT PLAYING POLITICS, GET GOOD PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS, LARGER SALARY INCREASES, MORE PROMOTIONS AND HAVE HIGHER JOB SATISFACTION THAN THE POLICIALLY NAÏVE OR INEPT.

PEOPLE WITH MODEST POLITICAL SKILLS OR THOSE WHO ARE UNWILLING TO PLAY THE POLITICAL GAMES AT WORK MAY SUFFER FROM LOWER JOB SATISFACTION, LOWER PERFORMANCE LEVELS, INCRREASED ANXIETY AND HIGHER TURNOVER.


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BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES SYSTEM?

OHIO STATE STUDIES

INITIATING STRUCTURE v. CONSIDERATION

FIELD STUDY: IS = Satisf down, C = Satisf up

MICHIGAN STUDIES

JOB-CENTERED v. EMPLOYEE-CENTERED

FIELD EXPERIMENT: JC = Satisf down, EC = Satisf up

JC = Productivity up 25%, EC = Productivity up 20%

THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON (64)

CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION

FIVE STYLES

Impoverished, Authority/Obedience (Task), Middle of the Road, Country Club, Team

IS THERE A THIRD DIMENSION---DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED BEHAVIOR?


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THE MANAGERIAL GRID SYSTEM?BLAKE & MOUTON (64)


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SUMMARY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?

ASSUMPTION

Leaders are effective because of the actions they take

IMPLICATION

We can learn to become leaders by studying what effective leaders do

LIMITATIONS

Situational factors that influence success or failure are ignored

Leaders need to be flexible…you can’t lead the same way all the time


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LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVES SYSTEM?JAGO (82)

APPROACH

UNIVERSAL CONTINGENT

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

TRAITS TRAIT FIEDLER’S

THEORIES CONTINGENCY

THEORY

FOCUS ON - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

OHIO STATE PATH-GOAL

MICH STUDIES VROOM-YETTON

BEHAVIORS LEADER GRID LIFE-CYCLE

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


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CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?FIEDLER (65)

LEADER CHARACTERISTICS (Least-Preferred Coworker Scale)

HIGH LPC --- EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ORIENTED

LOW LPC --- TASK ORIENTED

SITUATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS

TASK STRUCTURE

LEADER POSITION POWER

FAVORABLE LEADER SITUATIONS

MOST FAVORABLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - LEAST FAVORABLE

LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS G G G G N N N N

TASK STRUCTURE G G N N G G N N

LEADER POSITION POWER G N G N G N G N

EFFECTIVE STYLE TASK EMPLOYEE TASK

FIEDLER’S CONTRIBUTIONS

  • LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IS SITUATIONAL

  • TASK LEADERSHIP IS VALUABLE AND IMPORTANT

  • MODIFY SITUATIONS TO FIT THE LEADER’S STYLE


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MANIPULATING THE SITUATION SYSTEM?

MODIFY LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS

SPEND MORE (OR LESS) TIME WITH SUBORDINATES

ORGANIZE SOME OFF-WORK GROUP ACTIVITIES

INCREASE (OR DECREASE) YOUR AVAILABILITY TO WORKERS

RAISE MORALE BY OBTAINING POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR SUBORDINATES

TRANSFER SUBORDINATES INTO (OR OUT OF) YOUR UNIT

REQUEST COMPATIBLE PEOPLE FOR WORK IN YOUR GROUP

MODIFY TASK STRUCTURE

ASK FOR TASKS WHICH ARE MORE STUCTURED

LEARN ALL YOU CAN ABOUT THE TASK

BREAK THE JOB DOWN INTO SMALLER SUB-TASKS

LEAVE THE TASK IN RELATIVELY VAGUE FORM

ENRICH JOBS THROUGH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EXPANSION

MODIFY POSITION POWER

SHOW SUBORDINATES WHO’ BOSS --- EXERCISE YOUR POWERS FULLY

BECOME AN EXPERT ABOUT JOBS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

ALL INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES IS CHANNELED THROUGH YOU

ASK MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AND PLANNING

TRY TO BE “ONE OF THE GANG” --- DOWNPLAY YOUR POWER

LET ASSISTANTS EXERCISE MORE POWER

ASK MANAGEMENT TO GIVE YOU MORE DISCRETION AND AUTONOMY


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LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY SYSTEM?(SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY) HERSEY & BLANCHARD (77)

LEADER BEHAVIORS NEED TO VARY, DEPENDING ON THE MATURITY OF THE WORKERS

DIRECTIVE STYLE (TELLING)

GIVES CLEAR DIRECTION & INSTRUCTIONS TO IMMATURE EMPLOYEES

FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE AND UNWILLING (INSECURE)

COACHING STYLE (SELLING)

EXPANDS TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION, HELPS MATURING EMPLOYEES BUILD CONFIDENCE AND MOTIVATION

FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE, BUT WILLING TO TRY

SUPPORTING STYLE (PARTICIPATING)

EMPLOYEE FEEL COMPETENT, ACTIVE TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION STILL NEEDED FOR SHARED DECISIONS

FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE BUT APPREHENSIVE

AUTONOMOUS STYLE (DELEGATING)

GIVES RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING TO HIGHLY MATURE EMPLOYEES

FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE AND WILLING

TASK BEHAVIORS START OUT HIGH, AND GRADUALLY DECLINE

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS START LOW, BUILD, THEN DECLINE AGAIN

AN INTUITIVE THEORY, BUT EMPIRICAL SUPPORT HAS NOT BEEN STRONG


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PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?HOUSE & MITCHELL (74)

SITUATIONAL FACTORS

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBORDINATES

LOCUS OF CONTROL

EXPERIENCE

PERCEIVED ABILITY

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT

TASK STRUCTURE

FORMAL AUTHORITY SYSTEM

WORK GROUP

LEADER STYLES

DIRECTIVE

SUPPORTIVE

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED

PARTICIPATIVE

THE LEADER COMPENSATES FOR THINGS LACKING IN EITHER THE EMPLOYEE OR THE WORK SETTING TO HELP THE WORKER PERFORM EFFECTIVELY


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PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES SYSTEM?

DIRECTIVE

LETS SUBORDINATES KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED

PLANS AND SCHEDULES WORK TO BE DONE

GIVES SPECIFIC GUIDANCE -- WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AND HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE

MAINTAINS CLEAR STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

SUPPORTIVE

SHOWS CONCERN FOR WELL-BEING OF SUBORDINATES

TREATS MEMBERS AS EQUALS

DOES LITTLE THINGS TO MAKE THE WORK MORE PLEASANT

IS FRIENDLY AND APPROACHABLE

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED

SETS CHALLENGING GOALS

EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL

SEEKS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE, WHILE SHOWING CONFIDENCE IN WORKERS

PARTICIPATIVE

CONSULTS WITH SUBORDINATES

SOLICITS SUGGESTIONS

TAKES SUGGESTIONS SERIOUSLY INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE MAKING DECISIONS


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VERTICAL DYAD (EXCHANGE) MODEL SYSTEM?(LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE MODEL) GRAEN (75)

  • LEADERS INVEST THEIR TIME & ATTENTION IN THOSE EXPECTED TO PERFORM BEST

  • LEADER CREATES AN “IN-GROUP” (THE “FAVORED FEW”) & AN “OUT-GROUP”

  • IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS MAY DEMONSTRATE THE “SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY”

    IN-GROUPS

  • RECEIVE SPECIAL DUTIES AND HAVE SPECIAL PRIVILEGES

  • ARE GIVEN MORE AUTONOMY AND RESPONSIBILITY

  • EXPERIENCE HIGHER SATISFACTION

  • ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE

  • ARE PART OF THE LEADER’S SUPPORT NETWORK

    OUT_GROUPS

  • ARE NOT TRUSTED

  • ARE NOT GIVEN DESIRABLE WORK ASSIGNMENTS

  • RECEIVE LESS LEADER TIME AND ATTENTION

  • “LIVE DOWN” TO LEADER EXPECTATIONS

  • ARE LESS LIKELY TO SUPPORT THE LEADER

    IN-GROUP MEMBERS SELECTED BASED ON:

  • COMPETENCE AND ABILITY

  • PERSONAL COMPATIBILITY WITH THE LEADER


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SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?KERR & JERIMER (78)

SUBSTITUTES ARE FACTORS THAT CAN NEUTRALIZE THE INFLUENCE OF LEADER BEHAVIOR

LOOK FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF:

THE SUBORDINATES

THE TASK

THE ORGANIZATION

FOR INITIATING STRUCTURE

ABILITY AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SUBORDINATES

STANDARDIZED, UNAMBIGUOUS, ROUTINIZED TASKS

DETAILED RULES & PROCEDURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

FOR CONSIDERATION

INTRINSIC APPEAL OF THE TASK ITSELF

ESTEEM OF PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES

SUPPORTIVE AND COHESIVE WORK GROUP


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SUMMARY OF CONTINGENCY THEORIES SYSTEM?

THE CONTINGENCY THEORY

Fiedler (65)

PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY

Vroom & Yetton (73)

PATH-GOAL THEORY

House & Mitchell (74)

VERTICAL DYAD (LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE) THEORY

Graen (75)

LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY

Hersey & Blanchard (77)

SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP

Kerr & Jerimer (78)

CONCLUSIONS RE: CONTINGENCY THEORIES

THERE IS NO “ONE BEST WAY” TO LEAD

LEADERS SHOULD KNOW THEIR OWN PREFERRED STYLE

KNOW HOW TO CAREFULLY DIAGNOSE YOUR WORK SITUATION

UNDERSTAND WHICH ACTIONS TO TAKE TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION


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MANAGERIAL ROLES SYSTEM?MINTZBERG (73)

INTERPERSONAL ROLES

  • Figurehead (Ceremonial)

  • Leader (Supervisor)

  • Liaison (Linking-Pin)

    INFORMATIONAL ROLES

  • Monitor

  • Disseminator

  • Spokesperson

    DECISIONAL ROLES

  • Innovator (Entrepreneur)

  • Disturbance Handler (Crisis)

  • Resource Allocator

  • Negotiator


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LEADERSHIP AND TRUST SYSTEM?

AN EXPECTATION THAT THE LEADER WILL NOT TAKE UNFAIR ADVANTAGE OF ME

IS MY LEADER TRUSTWORTHY?

FIVE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST

INTEGRITY -- honest and truthful

COMPETENCE -- has good technical knowledge & interpersonal skills

CONSISTENCY -- is reliable, predictable, and has good judgement

LOYALTY -- will look out for me and protect me; won’t take advantage

OPENNESS -- will talk to me and tell me the truth (what’s going on)

DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST

--WE CAN RETALIATE OR STRIKE BACK IF HARMED…DON’T REALLY HAVE A HISTORY

KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST

--CAN PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN BASED ON EXPERIENCE…GIVE A SECOND CHANCE?

IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST

--- KNOW EACH OTHER INTIMATELY, ACT FOR EACH OTHER

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRUST

MISTRUST DRIVES OUT TRUST

TRUST BEGETS TRUST

GROWTH OFTEN MASKS DISTRUST

DECLINE OR DOWNSIZING TESTS THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF TRUST

TRUST INCREASES COHESION

MISTRUSTING GROUPS SELF-DESTRUCT

MISTRUST GENERALLY REDUCES PRODUCTIVITY


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7 KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIP SYSTEM?Labich 99

  • Trust your Subordinates

  • Develop a Vision

  • Keep Cool

  • Encourage Risk

  • Be an Expert

  • Invite Dissent

  • Simplify Things