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Proteins Overview of Protein Body is made up of thousands of proteins Contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Functions Regulates and maintains body functions Provides essential form of nitrogen (in the form of amino acids) Relationship of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids

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overview of protein
Overview of Protein
  • Body is made up of thousands of proteins
  • Contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • Functions
    • Regulates and maintains body functions
    • Provides essential form of nitrogen (in the form of amino acids)
relationship of essential and non essential amino acids
Relationship of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids
  • Example:

Phenylalanine    tyrosine

(essential non-essential)

  • But in PKU diagnosed individuals:

Phenylalanine    tyrosine

(essential NOW essential)

dietary protein
Dietary Protein

High-quality

complete

Low-quality

incomplete

All-or-none principle in protein synthesis

Limiting amino acids

Complementary proteins

limiting amino acid
Limiting Amino Acid

CCCCC

AAAAAAAA CAR CAR CAR

RRRRRR CAR CAR

R

A A A

C is the limiting amino acid in this example

complementary protein
Complementary Protein

Food 1 Food 2 Combined

CC CCCC

AAAA AA CAR CAR CAR

RRR RRR CAR CAR CAR

protein organization
Protein Organization
  • Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape
  • Protein’s final shape determines its function in the body
denaturation of proteins
Heat/acid/alkaline/enzymes

Results in alteration of the protein’s three

dimensional structure

Denaturation of Proteins
animal protein
Animal Protein
  • Contribution to our diet
    • ~70% of our protein intake
  • Top 5 contributors of protein in U.S. diet:
    • Beef
    • Poultry
    • Milk
    • White bread
    • Cheese
  • Worldwide, 35% comes from animal sources
plant protein
Provides

Protein, minerals, and dietary fiber

Contains no cholesterol

Limited saturated fats

High fiber

Time needed to adjust to the higher fiber load

Plant Protein
health and plant proteins
Health and Plant Proteins
  • Heart healthy
  • Cancer-fighting
  • Better glucose control
  • Nuts as a special focus
digestion of protein in the stomach
Digestion of Protein in the Stomach
  • Denatured
    • By cooking and acid in the stomach
  • Gastrin
    • Stimulates the release of acid and pepsin
  • Pepsin
    • Breaks down proteins
digestion of protein in the small intestine
Digestion of Protein in the Small Intestine
  • Release of CCK (Hormone cholecystokinin – triggers release of pancreatic enzymes and bile)
  • Pancreatic enzymes:
    • Trypsin, among others, into the duodenum
  • Proteins  peptides  amino acids
    • Ready for absorption
protein absorption
Protein Absorption
  • Site of digestion
    • Microvilli surface and within absorptive cells
  • Many different amino acid transport mechanisms
  • Active absorption
  • Amino acids are sent to the liver
    • Via portal vein
functions of proteins
Functions of Proteins
  • Building blocks of body components
  • Fluid balance maintenance
  • Acid/base balance (contribute to)
  • Building blocks of hormones and enzymes
  • Immune function
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Energy yielding (non-preferred source)
rda for protein
RDA for Protein
  • Promotes equilibrium
  • 0.8 gram of protein / kg of healthy body weight

154 lb. = 70 kg

2.2 kg/lb.

70 kg x 0.8 gram protein = 56 gram protein

kg healthy body wt

rda for protein22
RDA for Protein
  • Increased by ~10-15 grram /day for pregnancy
  • Endurance athletes
    • May need 1.2 – 1.7 gram/kg healthy weight
  • Provide about 8-10% of total kcal
  • Most of us eat more than the RDA for protein
  • Excess protein cannot be stored as protein
is a high protein diet harmful
Is a High-Protein Diet Harmful?
  • Low in plant foods (fiber), vitamins, phytochemicals
  • High in saturated fat and cholesterol
  • Excessive intake of processed red meat is linked with colon cancer
  • Burden on the kidney
  • May increase calcium loss in the urine
malnutrition
Malnutrition
  • Protein-Energy Malnutrition
  • Marasmus
    • Seen in hospitalized patients
  • Kwashiorkor
vegetarian diets
Vegetarian Diets
  • Why become a vegetarian?
  • Vegans
  • Fruitarians
  • Lactovegetarians
  • Lactoovovegetarians
  • Concerns for vegetarians in general
  • Special concerns for infants and children