Use of UAS to Improve Weather and Climate Prediction
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Use of UAS to Improve Weather and Climate Prediction AIAA – Seattle Washington April 7, 2009 Alexander E. MacDonald, Ph.D . Deputy Assistant Administrator for Labs and Cooperative Institutes & Director, Earth System Research Laboratory National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

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Use of UAS to Improve Weather and Climate Prediction

AIAA – Seattle Washington

April 7, 2009

Alexander E. MacDonald, Ph.D.

Deputy Assistant Administrator for Labs

and Cooperative Institutes

& Director, Earth System Research Laboratory

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration


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TALK SUMMARY

  • The role of UAS in environmental science.

  • Weather Prediction Problem: Hurricanes and UAS

  • The Challenge of Global Climate Change

  • Role of UAS in Climate Change Science


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TALK SUMMARY

  • The role of UAS in environmental science.

  • Weather Prediction Problem: Hurricanes and UAS

  • The Challenge of Global Climate Change

  • Role of UAS in Climate Change Science


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Observational Gap

Forecasts are only as good as the models

Models are only as good as the data that goes into them

Key is improved data and improved observations

UAS have great potential to fill the gap between satellites and surface-based sensors to take measurements that will complement our existing platforms


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NOAA is Looking at a Broad Range of Platforms For Global Information to fill this Gap……..


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…..for a broad number of applications Information to fill this Gap……..


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Implementation Strategy: Information to fill this Gap……..

Regional UAS Testbeds

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2008 Arctic Testbed Information to fill this Gap……..What is the population of ice seals in the Arctic?

Leads: R.Angliss (NMFS), G.Walker (UofAK), P.Hall (OMAO)

• Launch and recovery of Scan Eagle demonstrated from the NOAA ship Oscar Dyson

• Detailed review by NOAA Office of Marine and Aircraft Operations (AOC/MOC-P and OMAO)

• Significant ship coordination for integration and operations

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Pacific UAS Demonstration – PacTest Information to fill this Gap……..Vandenberg AFB, California

Vandenberg AFB, Nov 1-2 and 8, 2008

Total of 14 hours over 10 flights

Flux testing over the ocean at altitudes of 1000, 2000, and 3000 ft

Aerosol and ozone sampling at altitudes up to 12,000 ft

Conceptual flight track

Vandenberg AFB

KH20 Krypton Hygrometer

Gust Probe

Conducted as part of the UAS Pacific Testbed: Gary Wick (OAR), Todd Jacobs (NOS)

Conducted by SCRIPPS team: K Lehmann; H Nguyen and V Ramanathan

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Manta 2008 flux demo Information to fill this Gap……..

Led by Scripps

Proposed

Global Hawk

2009-10 demo

with dropsondes

Joint with NASA

& Northrop

Grumman

Pacific UAS Testbed Demo

What is the water budget of an atmospheric river?

Integrated Water Vapor

From SSM/I

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TALK SUMMARY Information to fill this Gap……..

  • The role of UAS in environmental science.

  • Weather Prediction Problem: Hurricanes and UAS

  • The Challenge of Global Climate Change

  • Role of UAS in Climate Change Science


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12 Information to fill this Gap……..


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14 Information to fill this Gap……..


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NOAA/NASA Noel Aerosonde UAS mission Information to fill this Gap……..

Aerosonde was launched from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility at

14:08 EST on Friday November 2, 2007.

Mission endurance was 17 hours 27 minutes and resulted in

7.5 hours of data collection in the core of the hurricane at altitudes less than 100m.


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Take-off from Wallops Flight Facility (KWAL) 1600 UTC Information to fill this Gap……..

Nominal altitude for the Aerosonde

prior to entering the storm’s core

circulation was between 300-600m.

Near the center, UAS altitude was ~150m.

Aerosonde

P-3 (3500 m)

“Eye” loitering with vertical soundings (90-1500 m)

KMCF

Rendezvous with P-3 at storm center 0525 UTC


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HALE: light - in-situ measurement using drop-sondes Information to fill this Gap……..

Lightweight drop-sondes dispensed into developing weather event or storm at intervals to measure PTU and wind speed


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Dropsonde Mechanical Design Information to fill this Gap……..

  • Populated housing with attached streamer

  • 38.3 grams

  • Foam housing

  • 3.5 inch diameter

  • 2.3 grams

  • Air pathways for sensors


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Dropsonde Electronics Specs Information to fill this Gap……..


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Global Hawk Test Planning Information to fill this Gap……..

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC)

  • Two Global Hawks have been acquired by NASA DFRC, CA and will be used, in part, for earth science research and application studies

  • NOAA (with NASA and NCAR) is building a dropsonde system (100/flt); dropsonde sys. development coordinated by D. Fahey (NOAA)

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TALK SUMMARY Information to fill this Gap……..

  • The role of UAS in environmental science.

  • Weather Prediction Problem: Hurricanes and UAS

  • The Challenge of Global Climate Change

  • Role of UAS in Climate Change Science


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The World Is Still Warm (post-IPCC 2007) Information to fill this Gap……..

La Nina

Short-term variations (e.g., volcanoes, El Nino/La Nina in some years) don’t change the global ‘big picture.’

From www.realclimate.org


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Many Changes Signal A Warming World Information to fill this Gap……..

Rising atmospheric temperature

And……

  • Atmospheric water vapor increasing

  • Glaciers retreating

  • Arctic sea ice extent decreasing

  • Extreme temperatures increasing

  • ………….

Warming is Unequivocal

Rising sea level

Reduction in NH snow cover

IPCC WG1 (2007)


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Temperature rise: End of century temperatures with “business as usual” scenario.



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Earth System models about 6 meters. will allow improved prediction of long term climate.


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Nonhydrostatic about 6 meters.

Icosahedral

Model

Alexander E. MacDonald

Jin-Luen Lee


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2008 Arctic Tests: about 6 meters.

Greenland

NOAA deployed a Manta in Greenlandin summer 2008, in support of an international team.

Sensor package:

Laser altimeter

Visible camera

Visible video

Hyperspectral imager

Standard Met. Package

Irridium comms

Differential GPS


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Arctic Testbed Demo: about 6 meters.

What is the volume of the melt water in a supra-glacial lake?

Photo: from Sarah Das

NOAA Mission requirement: Improve climate forecasts by reducing uncertainty in glacial ice-melt and its impact on sea level

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Satellites are excellent for column integrated constituents. about 6 meters.

UAS allow us to determine the vertical distribution of the constituent: PROFILES.

Black carbon (blue) and sulfates (green).


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Arctic Mission about 6 meters.

  • Need for information over the Arctic is great

  • Area is huge and remote

  • HALE UAS required.


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Proposed: Global Unified Profiling System about 6 meters.

Climate:

* Accurate climate sondes at every “climate point” (240 points equally distributed over oceans and polar regions) every three days.

* Detailed profiles of cloud properties, radiation, aerosols and chemistry.

* Buoys or AXBT’s at each ocean point.


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Questions . . . . about 6 meters.

alexander.e.macdonald@noaa.gov


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