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Wind Water Insects Birds. Rodents Bats Self-pollinating. Pollinators. Pollinators. World Crop Pollination 73% Bees - 5% beetles 19% flies - 4% birds 6.5 % bats - 5% wasps 4% butterflies and moths. Source: www.albany.edu/natweb/dispoll.html. Floral Adaptations.

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pollinators
Wind

Water

Insects

Birds

Rodents

Bats

Self-pollinating

Pollinators
pollinators1
Pollinators
  • World Crop Pollination
    • 73% Bees - 5% beetles
    • 19% flies - 4% birds
    • 6.5 % bats - 5% wasps
    • 4% butterflies and moths

Source: www.albany.edu/natweb/dispoll.html

floral adaptations
Floral Adaptations
  • Wind Pollination
    • Small or absent perianth
    • Color: Green or Brown
    • No odor or nectar
    • LOTS of pollen (typical allergy source)
    • Examples: grass, ragweed, corn, maple, pine

D. Hautau

Northern Red Oak

floral adaptations1
Floral Adaptations
  • Water Pollination
    • Flower parts waxy
    • No odor or nectar
    • Only a little pollen that floats
    • Example: Eel grass (Vallisneria americana)
floral adaptations2
Floral Adaptations
  • Bird Pollination
    • Flower parts tubular or handing; deep spurs
    • Color: Red, yellow, orange
    • Faint odor; lots of hidden nectar
    • Sticky pollen
    • Example: Trumpet vine,

Fuschia

D. Hautau

floral adaptations3
Floral Adaptations
  • Bat Pollination
    • Flower parts short tubes open at night
    • Color: White, cream, dark red
    • Musty odor; Tons of nectar and pollen
    • Mice and other mammals may also pollinate
floral adaptations4
Floral Adaptations
  • Beetle Pollination
    • Flat or bowl shaped flower
    • Color: drab brown or white
    • Strong fermenty odor
    • Lots of pollen (beetle food)
    • Examples: Skunk Cabbage
floral adaptations5
Floral Adaptations
  • Fly Pollination
    • Sex organs hidden and booby-trapped
    • Color: red-brown to green or purple
    • Rotting meat odor
    • Sticky pollen
    • Examples: Carrion flower (Stapelia)
floral adaptations6
Floral Adaptations
  • Butterfly Pollination
    • Regular, flat flowers; some with tubes
    • Color: red, orange, yellow, blue
    • Weak odor but lots of nectar
    • Sticky pollen
    • Example: Milkweed

G. Falkenhagen 2003

floral adaptations7
Floral Adaptations
  • Moth Pollination
    • Hanging flower; tubed; opens at night
    • Color: white or cream
    • Strongly sweet odor; lots of nectar
    • Sticky pollen
    • Examples: Jasmine, Jimsonweed,

Evening Primrose

G. Falkenhagen 2003

floral adaptations8
Floral Adaptations
  • Bee Pollination
    • Bilateral flowers with landing platform; hairs for gripping and UV nectar guides
    • Color: white, blue, yellow
    • Sweet odor & lots of nectar
    • Lots of pollen
bee pollinating services
Bee Pollinating Services
  • 90 Crops in the U.S. rely on bee pollination
  • Bees usually forage within 500m of hive but can go over 4 miles if needed
  • Bees average 20-40mg of nectar/load
  • Pollen Sources – protein for bees
  • Nectar Sources – carbs for bees
bee pollinating services1
Bee Pollinating Services
  • Nectar Sources – carbs for bees
    • Sucrose is preferred sugar or sucrose mix
    • Abundance and Sugar concentration important
      • Pear nectar = 10%
      • Legume nectar = 40%+
    • Amount varies by day, time, environment
bee pollinating services2
Bee Pollinating Services
  • Nectar Sources – carbs for bees
    • Produced by special glands (nectaries)
      • Vary in structure and position
    • Sample Plants
      • Basswood - Apple - White clover
      • Alfalfa - Dandelion - Willow
      • Alsike Clover - Goldenrod - Tulip tree
bee pollinating services3
Bee Pollinating Services
  • Pollen Sources – protein for bees
    • Plant Pollen sources
      • Aster family
      • Cat-tail
      • Dandelion
      • Elm
      • Rose family
bee pollinating services4
Bee Pollinating Services
  • Pollen Sources – protein for bees
    • Primarily collected in spring to feed brood
    • Hairs on bee’s body stick to pollen then bee ‘combs’ pollen with leg and sticks into basket
    • Pollen pellets weigh up to 20mg
bee pollinating services5
Bee Pollinating Services

D. Hautau

Video on Pollination Importance: 9 minutes

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5294323989667289565

bibliography
Bibliography
  • Campus Nature Web. University at Albany. 1996. “Fact Sheet: Pollinator Diversity.” www.albany.edu/natweb/dispoll.html
  • Caron, Dewey M. 1999. Honey Bee Biology and beekeeping. Wicwas Press, LLC. Cp. 20.
  • Dunne, Niall. 2005. “The Nature of Nectar.” Plants & Gardens News 20:2. www.bbg.org/gar2?topics/essays 2005su_naturenectar.html
  • Falkenhagen, George. 2003. Alpena Community College. Personal Photos.
  • Raven, Peter H., et al. 2008. Biology, 8th ed. McGraw Hill Higher Education. New York, N.Y.
  • Tew, Dr. James E. Accessed 7/26/2007. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: HYG-2168-98. “Some Ohio Nectar and Pollen Producing Plants. http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2168.html
  • Other images are personal images of D. Hautau, Alpena Community College, 2007.