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Clean Air Workshop 2003 10-12 December 2003, Rio de Janeiro Establishment of Local Emission Factors for Vehicles Lennart Erlandsson, David Bauner AVL MTC, Sweden Presentation Background Methodology (used in Lima-Callao) Results (Analyses) Background Inter-action Model Measurement

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Clean Air Workshop 200310-12 December 2003, Rio de JaneiroEstablishment of Local Emission Factors for VehiclesLennart Erlandsson, David BaunerAVL MTC, Sweden

presentation
Presentation
  • Background
  • Methodology (used in Lima-Callao)
  • Results (Analyses)
inter action
Inter-action

Model

Measurement

of air quality

Net

Vehicles,

Fuels

Flows

Measures

Stationary,

Fuels

Activ.

Scenarios

M1 ...

Area

Activ.

M2 ...

1

Ambient

conditions

Topogr.

M3 ...

2

3

...

sources
Sources
  • Mobile
  • Stationary
  • Area
mobile sources
Mobile Sources
  • Exhaust emissions
  • Evaporative emissions
  • (Resuspended particulates)
emission factors depends on
Emission Factors Depends on:
  • Engine technology
  • Maintenance of the vehicle
  • Fuel quality
  • Driving habits
  • Ambient temperature/humidity
  • Topography
engine technology
Engine Technology
  • Gasoline
  • Diesel
  • Type of vehicles
    • Passenger cars
    • Buses/Trucks
    • Motorcycles
  • Catalytic converter
  • Particle filter
technical status
Technical Status
  • Requirements for new vehciels
  • Import of second hand cars
  • Composition of vehicle fleet
  • System for vehicle inspection
  • Level of maintenance

...for all types of vehicles included

in the emission data base

development of em factor
Development of Em. Factor

Level of activity x “Technical” emission factor = “Total” emission factor

vehicle fleet in lima callao
Vehicle Fleet in Lima - Callao

Groups

  • Light duty vehicles 11
    • GVWR up to 3.5 t
  • Heavy duty vehicles 5
    • GVWR more than 3.5 t
  • Motorcycles 2

18

light duty vehicles
Light Duty Vehicles

Passenger cars, gasoline, without catalytic converter(2 versions: carburettor or injection)

Passenger cars, gasoline, with catalytic converter

Passenger cars, diesel

Taxi, gasoline, without catalytic converter (2 versions)

Taxi, gasoline, with catalytic converter

Taxi, gas (CNG/LPG), without catalytic converter

Taxi, diesel

Pick-up/light truck, gasoline

Pick-up/light truck, diesel

buses and trucks
Buses and Trucks

Minivan, 12 passengers (LDV)

Microbuses, 20 – 25 passengers

Full size bus without emission control system

(~ before 1990)

Full size bus with emission control system

(~ Euro I)

Heavy duty truck GVWR < 16 t

Heavy duty truck GVWR > 16 t

motorcycles
Motorcycles

Motorcycle 2-stroke

Motorcycle 4-stroke

(All cylinder volumes)

pollutants to consider
Pollutants to Consider

- Carbon monoxide (CO)

- Hydrocarbons (VOC, HC)

- Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)

- Particulate matter (PM)

- Oxides of sulfur (SOx)

- Lead (Pb)

and additionally:

- Fuel consumption (CO2)

influencing factors in lima callao
Influencing Factors (in Lima-Callao)

- Altitude

- Humidity

- Maintenance and Service

- Load of the vehicle

- Characteristics of the fleet

- Fuel quality

existing data bases
Existing Data Bases
  • USA
    • Mobile 5/5b, Mobile 6
  • Europa
    • COPERT III
    • “German Handbook”
    • Artemis (not finalized)
e f g km at 40 km h
E F (g/km), at 40 km/h

”Handbook” Copert MTC EMOD1)

Full size bus CO 11.7 2.9 7.2 12.9

HC 3.5 1.6 2.2 --

NOx 10.7 5.0 16.6 22.0

Part. 2.3 0.7 1.8 2.6

1) EMOD used in Lima-Callao

e f g km at 40 km h22
E F (g/km), at 40 km/h

”Handbook” Copert MTC EMOD1)

Taxi diesel CO 0.4 1.1 2.9 1.6

HC 0.08 0.3 0.9 --

NOx 0.5 1.1 1.4 1.8

Part. 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.4

1)EMOD used in Lima-Callao

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Contact:AVL MTC – Air QualityLennart ErlandssonP.O. Box 223, SE-136 23 HaningeSwedenPhone: + 46 8 500 656 00Direct: + 46 8 500 656 12Fax: + 46 8 500 283 28E-mail: lennart.erlandsson@avlmtc.comHome page: www.mtc.se